Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Cancer cells escape the immune system by increasing stemness through epigenetic reprogramming


This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1


  1. Bajaj J, Diaz E, Reya T. Stem cells in cancer initiation and progression. J Cell Biol. 2020;219:e201911053.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Lei MML, Lee TKW. Cancer stem cells: emerging key players in immune evasion of cancers. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9:692940.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Musella M, Guarracino A, Manduca N, Galassi C, Ruggiero E, Potenza A, et al. Type I IFNs promote cancer cell stemness by triggering the epigenetic regulator KDM1B. Nat Immunol. 2022;23:1379–92.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Kroemer G, Galluzzi L, Kepp O, Zitvogel L. Immunogenic cell death in cancer therapy. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013;31:51–72.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Ahmed A, Tait SWG. Targeting immunogenic cell death in cancer. Mol Oncol. 2020;14:2994–3006.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Boukhaled GM, Harding S, Brooks DG. Opposing roles of type I interferons in cancer immunity. Annu Rev Pathol. 2021;16:167–98.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Di Franco S, Turdo A, Todaro M, Stassi G. Role of type I and II interferons in colorectal cancer and melanoma. Front Immunol. 2017;8:878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Aricò E, Castiello L, Capone I, Gabriele L, Belardelli F. Type I interferons and cancer: an evolving story demanding novel clinical applications. Cancers (Basel). 2019;11:1943.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Yu R, Zhu B, Chen D. Type I interferon-mediated tumor immunity and its role in immunotherapy. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022;79:19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Musella M, Manic G, De Maria R, Vitale I, Sistigu A. Type-I-interferons in infection and cancer: Unanticipated dynamics with therapeutic implications. Oncoimmunology 2017;6:e1314424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Zhu Y, Karakhanova S, Huang X, Deng SP, Werner J, Bazhin AV. Influence of interferon-α on the expression of the cancer stem cell markers in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2014;324:146156

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Qadir AS, Ceppi P, Brockway S, Law C, Mu L, Khodarev NN, et al. CD95/Fas increases stemness in cancer cells by inducing a STAT1-dependent type I interferon response. Cell Rep. 2017;18:2373–86.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Rodriguez-Ruiz ME, Buqué A, Hensler M, Chen J, Bloy N, Petroni G, et al. Apoptotic caspases inhibit abscopal responses to radiation and identify a new prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients. Oncoimmunology. 2019;8:e1655964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Tang D, He J, Dai Y, Geng X, Leng Q, Jiang H, et al. Targeting KDM1B-dependent miR-215-AR-AGR2-axis promotes sensitivity to enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Gene Ther. 2022;29:543–57.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work received financial support from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (PID2020-113501RB-I00; JAC), the Axencia Galega de Innovación (Galician Agency of Innovation (2020-PG068; JAC), the Centro Singular de Investigación de Galicia accreditation 2016–2019, ED431G/05) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jose A. Costoya or Victor M. Arce.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Costoya, J.A., Arce, V.M. Cancer cells escape the immune system by increasing stemness through epigenetic reprogramming. Cell Mol Immunol 20, 6–7 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links