The gut microbiota has a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and gut microbiota-derived metabolites have been recognized in many immune-related inflammatory disorders. These metabolites can be produced by gut microbiota from dietary components or by the host and can be modified by gut bacteria or synthesized de novo by gut bacteria. Gut microbiota-derived metabolites influence a plethora of immune cell responses, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Some of these metabolites are involved in the pathogenesis of immune-related inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we review the role of microbiota-derived metabolites in regulating the functions of different immune cells and the pathogenesis of chronic immune-related inflammatory diseases.
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This work was supported by NIH grants DK105585, DK112436, DK125011, AI150210, and DK124132; the University of Texas System STARs award (Y.C.); and supported by the James W. McLaughlin Fellowship Fund, UTMB (W.Y.). We appreciate Dr. Sherry Haller of The University of Texas Medical Branch for proofreading the manuscript. All images were created with BioRender.com.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Yang, W., Cong, Y. Gut microbiota-derived metabolites in the regulation of host immune responses and immune-related inflammatory diseases. Cell Mol Immunol 18, 866–877 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00661-4
- gut microbiota
- T cells
- B cells
- autoimmune diseases