ACOD1 in immunometabolism and disease

Abstract

Immunometabolism plays a fundamental role in health and diseases and involves multiple genes and signals. Aconitate decarboxylase 1 (ACOD1; also known as IRG1) is emerging as a regulator of immunometabolism in inflammation and infection. Upregulation of ACOD1 expression occurs in activated immune cells (e.g., macrophages and monocytes) in response to pathogen infection (e.g., bacteria and viruses), pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (e.g., LPS), cytokines (e.g., TNF and IFNs), and damage-associated molecular patterns (e.g., monosodium urate). Mechanistically, several immune receptors (e.g., TLRs and IFNAR), adapter proteins (e.g., MYD88), ubiquitin ligases (e.g., A20), and transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, IRFs, and STATs) form complex signal transduction networks to control ACOD1 expression in a context-dependent manner. Functionally, ACOD1 mediates itaconate production, oxidative stress, and antigen processing and plays dual roles in immunity and diseases. On the one hand, activation of the ACOD1 pathway may limit pathogen infection and promote embryo implantation. On the other hand, abnormal ACOD1 expression can lead to tumor progression, neurodegenerative disease, and immune paralysis. Further understanding of the function and regulation of ACOD1 is important for the application of ACOD1-based therapeutic strategies in disease.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Dave Primm (Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center) for his critical reading of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Daolin Tang or Rui Kang.

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Wu, R., Chen, F., Wang, N. et al. ACOD1 in immunometabolism and disease. Cell Mol Immunol 17, 822–833 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0489-5

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Key words

  • ACOD1
  • immunometabolism
  • disease

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