Hirschfield, G. M. & Gershwin, M. E. The immunobiology and pathophysiology of primary biliary cirrhosis. Annu. Rev. Pathol. 8, 303–330 (2013).
Gershwin, M. E. & Mackay, I. R. The causes of primary biliary cirrhosis: convenient and inconvenient truths. Hepatology 47, 737–745 (2008).
Selmi, C. et al. Experimental evidence on the immunopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 7, 1–10 (2010).
Tomiyama, T. et al. The modulation of co-stimulatory molecules by circulating exosomes in primary biliary cirrhosis. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 14, 276–284 (2017).
Chuang, Y. H. et al. Increased killing activity and decreased cytokine production in NK cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J. Autoimmun. 26, 232–240 (2006).
Gorelik, L. & Flavell, R. A. Abrogation of TGFbeta signaling in T cells leads to spontaneous T cell differentiation and autoimmune disease. Immunity 12, 171–181 (2000).
Oertelt, S. et al. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies and primary biliary cirrhosis in TGF-beta receptor II dominant-negative mice. J. Immunol. 177, 1655–1660 (2006).
Ma, H. D. et al. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 deficiency exacerbates murine autoimmune cholangitis by promoting pathogenic CD8(+) T cell activation. J. Autoimmun. 78, 19–28 (2017).
Yang, G. X. et al. Adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells from transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (dominant negative form) induces autoimmune cholangitis in mice. Hepatology 47, 1974–1982 (2008).
Kawata, K. et al. Clonality, activated antigen-specific CD8( + ) T cells, and development of autoimmune cholangitis in dnTGFbetaRII mice. Hepatology 58, 1094–1104 (2013).
Zhang W., et al. Proteomic analysis reveals distinctive protein profiles involved in CD8(+) T cell-mediated murine autoimmune cholangitis. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 15, 756–767 (2018).
Moritoki, Y. et al. B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 ameliorates autoimmune cholangitis but exacerbates colitis in transforming growth factor-beta receptor II dominant negative mice. Hepatology 50, 1893–1903 (2009).
Chuang, Y. H. et al. Natural killer T cells exacerbate liver injury in a transforming growth factor beta receptor II dominant-negative mouse model of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 47, 571–580 (2008).
Wang, Y. H. et al. Systems biologic analysis of T regulatory cells genetic pathways in murine primary biliary cirrhosis. J. Autoimmun. 59, 26–37 (2015).
Kashiwada, M., Pham, N. L., Pewe, L. L., Harty, J. T. & Rothman, P. B. NFIL3/E4BP4 is a key transcription factor for CD8alpha(+) dendritic cell development. Blood 117, 6193–6197 (2011).
Tian, Z., Chen, Y. & Gao, B. Natural killer cells in liver disease. Hepatology 57, 1654–1662 (2013).
Gao, B. Basic liver immunology. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 13, 265–266 (2016).
Pelletier, S. et al. Increased degranulation of natural killer cells during acute HCV correlates with the magnitude of virus-specific T cell responses. J. Hepatol. 53, 805–816 (2010).
Golden-Mason, L., Cox, A. L., Randall, J. A., Cheng, L. & Rosen, H. R. Increased natural killer cell cytotoxicity and NKp30 expression protects against hepatitis C virus infection in high-risk individuals and inhibits replication in vitro. Hepatology 52, 1581–1589 (2010).
Wen, C. et al. Hepatitis C virus infection downregulates the ligands of the activating receptor NKG2D. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 5, 475–478 (2008).
Dunn, C. et al. Cytokines induced during chronic hepatitis B virus infection promote a pathway for NK cell-mediated liver damage. J. Exp. Med. 204, 667–680 (2007).
Yang Y., et al. Exosomes mediate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and NK-cell dysfunction. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 14, 465–475 (2017)
Peng, H., Wisse, E. & Tian, Z. Liver natural killer cells: subsets and roles in liver immunity. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 13, 328–336 (2016).
Laso, F. J. et al. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an increased cytotoxic profile of circulating lymphocytes that may be related with the development of liver injury. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 34, 876–885 (2010).
Radaeva, S. et al. Natural killer cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by killing activated stellate cells in NKG2D-dependent and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-dependent manners. Gastroenterology 130, 435–452 (2006).
Kamizono, S. et al. Nfil3/E4bp4 is required for the development and maturation of NK cells in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 206, 2977–2986 (2009).
Male, V. et al. The transcription factor E4bp4/Nfil3 controls commitment to the NK lineage and directly regulates Eomes and Id2 expression. J. Exp. Med. 211, 635–642 (2014).
Peng, H. et al. Liver-resident NK cells confer adaptive immunity in skin-contact inflammation. J. Clin. Invest. 123, 1444–1456 (2013).
Sojka, D. K. et al. Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells. eLife 3, e01659 (2014).
Daussy, C. et al. T-bet and Eomes instruct the development of two distinct natural killer cell lineages in the liver and in the bone marrow. J. Exp. Med. 211, 563–577 (2014).
Shimoda, S. et al. Interaction between Toll-like receptors and natural killer cells in the destruction of bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 53, 1270–1281 (2011).
Gao, B. & Bertola, A. Natural killer cells take two tolls to destruct bile ducts. Hepatology 53, 1076–1079 (2011).
Tian, Z., Gershwin, M. E. & Zhang, C. Regulatory NK cells in autoimmune disease. J. Autoimmun. 39, 206–215 (2012).
Fontenot, J. D. et al. Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity 22, 329–341 (2005).
Li, L. et al. Natural killer cells-produced IFN-gamma improves bone marrow-derived hepatocytes regeneration in murine liver failure model. Sci. Rep. 5, 13687 (2015).
Chen, D. et al. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Mycoplasma hyorhinis pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 complex subunit alpha. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 100, 3587–3597 (2016).
Yang, W. et al. Differential modulation by IL−17A of Cholangitis versus Colitis in IL-2Ralpha deleted mice. PLoS ONE 9, e105351 (2014).
Yao, Y. et al. Distinct from its canonical effects, deletion of IL-12p40 induces cholangitis and fibrosis in interleukin-2Ralpha(−/−) mice. J. Autoimmun. 51, 99–108 (2014).
Talwalkar, J. A., Souto, E., Jorgensen, R. A. & Lindor, K. D. Natural history of pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1, 297–302 (2003).
Gershwin, M. E., Mackay, I. R., Sturgess, A. & Coppel, R. L. Identification and specificity of a cDNA encoding the 70 kd mitochondrial antigen recognized in primary biliary cirrhosis. J. Immunol. 138, 3525–3531 (1987).
Zhang, L. H., Shin, J. H., Haggadone, M. D. & Sunwoo, J. B. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for the maintenance of liver-resident natural killer cells. J. Exp. Med. 213, 2249–2257 (2016).
Melhem, A. et al. Anti-fibrotic activity of NK cells in experimental liver injury through killing of activated HSC. J. Hepatol. 45, 60–71 (2006).
Cheng, C. W. et al. NK cells suppress experimental cholestatic liver injury by an interleukin-6-mediated, Kupffer cell-dependent mechanism. J. Hepatol. 54, 746–752 (2011).
Wang, J. et al. Poly I:C prevents T cell-mediated hepatitis via an NK-dependent mechanism. J. Hepatol. 44, 446–454 (2006).
Shi, F. D., Ljunggren, H. G., La Cava, A. & Van Kaer, L. Organ-specific features of natural killer cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11, 658–671 (2011).
He, Y. & Tian, Z. NK cell education via nonclassical MHC and non-MHC ligands. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 14, 321–330 (2017).
Bern M. D., et al. Inducible down-regulation of MHC class I results in natural killer cell tolerance. J. Exp. Med. 216, 99–116 (2019).