A Venn diagram exhibiting miRNAs possibly regulating TFAP2A via bioinformatic prediction from three miRNA database (miRDB, miRTarBase and TargetScan). B Overexpression efficacy for miR-16/195/424/497-5p mimics in PC-9. C Influence on TFAP2A transcript levels of miR-16/195/424/497-5p mimics transfection in PC-9. D Influence on TFAP2A and PSG9 protein levels of miR-16/195/424/497-5p mimics transfection in PC-9. E Dual luciferase assays of HEK293T co-transfected with miR-16/195/424/497-5p mimics and psiCHECK-2-TFAP2A-3′UTR-WT luciferase reporter (right) or control psiCHECK-2 vector (left). F Dual luciferase assays of HEK293T co-transfected with miR-16/195/424/497-5p, psiCHECK-2-TFAP2A-3′UTR-WT (WT) and psiCHECK-2-TFAP2A-3′UTR-Mut1/2/3/4/5 (Mut) luciferase reporters. G miR-16/195/424/497 levels between tumors and normal tissues in four LUAD datasets (GSE48414, GSE51853, GSE63805 and GSE74190). H In LUAD, multiple oncogenic factors induce miR-16 family suppression, thus hindering TFAP2A from post-transcriptional silencing by miR-16 family, therefore increased TFAP2A transactivates PSG9 to facilitate TGF-β signaling-triggered EMT and subsequent metastasis. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. N≥3, Data are presented as mean ± SD or through boxplots.