Fig. 2: SDT alleviates PA-induced beta cell apoptosis and inflammation. | Cell Death & Disease

Fig. 2: SDT alleviates PA-induced beta cell apoptosis and inflammation.

From: Sonodynamic therapy inhibits palmitate-induced beta cell dysfunction via PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy

Fig. 2

a Model of beta cell injury was established by treating beta cells with PA for 48 h. Cell apoptosis was detected with Annexin V/PI staining by flow cytometry. Data is shown in b as the apoptotic ratio (Q2 + Q4) normalized to 0 mmol/l group. n = 3. c, d SDT inhibited apoptosis of beta cells induced by PA. Beta cells were treated with 0.3 mmol/l PA. Then, cells were treated by SDT for 5 min. Apoptosis was detected at 24 h post SDT. n = 3. eh SDT downregulated proapoptotic protein levels and upregulated antiapoptotic protein levels in beta cell injury model. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting for the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3. β-actin was used as an internal control. n = 4. i, j SDT attenuated proinflammatory cytokines caspase-1 and IL-1β levels. n = 3. Moreover, the secretion of IL-1β to supernatant was measured by ELISA. n = 3. Representative images are shown. Bars = Mean ± SEM. Bax Bcl-2 associated X Protein Bcl-2 B-cell lymphoma-2, IL-1β interleukin-1β, PA palmitic acid, US ultrasound

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