Fig. 1: Optimal parameters of SDT to treat normal pancreatic beta cells. | Cell Death & Disease

Fig. 1: Optimal parameters of SDT to treat normal pancreatic beta cells.

From: Sonodynamic therapy inhibits palmitate-induced beta cell dysfunction via PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy

Fig. 1

a Cell viability did not significantly change in beta cells incubated with 0.25–4 mmol/l ALA for 24 h. n = 6. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 compared to 0 mmol/l groups. b, c Accumulation of ALA-PpIX in beta cells reached peaks at the timepoint of 9 h and at the concentration of 1 mmol/l ALA. Fluorescence of ALA-PpIX was detected using fluorescence spectrophotometer and normalized to cell population. n = 6. ***P< 0.001 compared to 1 mmol/l groups. d Change of cell viability after 24 h post ALA-SDT is shown. Cells were preincubated with 1 mmol/l ALA for 9 h, then SDT was performed. n = 6. * P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 compared to 0 W/cm2 groups. Bars = Mean ± SEM. ALA 5-aminolevulinic acid, PpIX protoporphyrin IX, SDT sonodynamic therapy

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