Fig. 4: Effect of Euro 5 and Euro 4 DEPs, before any after-treatment, on cell viability: evaluation of apoptosis and necrosis in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial (NHBE) cells. | Cell Death & Disease

Fig. 4: Effect of Euro 5 and Euro 4 DEPs, before any after-treatment, on cell viability: evaluation of apoptosis and necrosis in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial (NHBE) cells.

From: Diesel exhaust particles induce autophagy and citrullination in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial cells

Fig. 4

a Morphological characterization and analysis of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry in NHBE cells untreated and treated for 24 h with Euro 5 and Euro 4 DEPs, before any after-treatment. Results shown are representative of three experiments in triplicate (N = 9). Numbers in upper and bottom right quadrants of each plot refer to Annexin V positive (AV+) cells, while numbers in the upper quadrants (left and right) represent Propidium Iodide positive (PI+) cells. b DEPs induce apoptosis in NHBE cells, reported as the percentage of AV+ cells. For 3.3 μg/cm2: P = 0.0003 for Euro 5 vs untreated; P = 0.0043 for Euro 4 vs untreated; P = 0.0032 for Euro 5 vs Euro 4. For 6.6 μg/cm2: P < 0.0001 for Euro 5 vs untreated; P = 0.0007 for Euro 4 vs untreated; P = 0.0006 for Euro 5 vs Euro 4. For a dose-depending comparison: P = 0.0018 for Euro 5 3.3 vs 6.6 μg/cm2; P = 0.0146 for Euro 4 3.3 vs 6.6 μg/cm2. c DEPs increase the percentage of necrotic (PI+) NHBE cells. For 3.3 μg/cm2: P = 0.0003 for Euro 5 vs untreated; P = 0.0028 for Euro 4 vs untreated; P = 0.0019 for Euro 5 vs Euro 4. For 6.6 μg/cm2: P < 0.0001 for Euro 5 vs untreated; P = 0.0048 for Euro 4 vs untreated; P < 0.0001 for Euro 5 vs Euro 4. For a dose-depending comparison: P = 0.0005 for Euro 5 3.3 vs 6.6 μg/cm2; P > 0.05 for Euro 4 3.3 vs 6.6 μg/cm2

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