Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a highly malicious childhood malignancy characterized by specific chromosomal translocations mostly encoding the oncogenic transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1 and therefore also referred to as fusion-positive RMS (FP-RMS). Previously, we have identified fenretinide (retinoic acid p-hydroxyanilide) to affect PAX3-FOXO1 expression levels as well as FP-RMS cell viability. Here, we characterize the mode of action of fenretinide in more detail. First, we demonstrate that fenretinide-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) depends on complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, since ROS scavenging as well as complexing of iron completely abolished cell death. Second, we co-treated cells with a range of pharmacological inhibitors of specific cell death pathways including z-vad (apoptosis), necrostatin-1 (necroptosis), 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (autophagy), and ferrostatin-1 (ferroptosis) together with fenretinide. Surprisingly, none of these inhibitors was able to prevent cell death. Also genetic depletion of key players in the apoptotic and necroptotic pathway (BAK, BAX, and RIPK1) confirmed the pharmacological data. Interestingly however, electron microscopy of fenretinide-treated cells revealed an excessive accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, which were distinct from autophagosomes. Further flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy experiments suggested a hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis, leading to an accumulation of enlarged early and late endosomes. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition as well as genetic depletion of large dynamin GTPases completely abolished fenretinide-induced vesicle formation and subsequent cell death, suggesting a new form of dynamin-dependent programmed cell death. Taken together, our data identify a new form of cell death mediated through the production of ROS by fenretinide treatment, highlighting the value of this compound for treatment of sarcoma patients including FP-RMS.
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We thank Silvia Jenni, Gloria Pedot, and Luca Pontiggia (University Children’s Hospital Zurich) for assistance with the cell sorting. This work was supported by the Krebsliga Zurich.
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Brack, E., Wachtel, M., Wolf, A. et al. Fenretinide induces a new form of dynamin-dependent cell death in pediatric sarcoma. Cell Death Differ 27, 2500–2516 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0518-z