The Hippo signaling effector, TEAD1 plays an essential role in cardiovascular development. However, a role for TEAD1 in postmitotic cardiomyocytes (CMs) remains incompletely understood. Herein we reported that TEAD1 is required for postmitotic CM survival. We found that adult mice with ubiquitous or CM-specific loss of Tead1 present with a rapid lethality due to an acute-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Surprisingly, deletion of Tead1 activated the necroptotic pathway and induced massive cardiomyocyte necroptosis, but not apoptosis. In contrast to apoptosis, necroptosis is a pro-inflammatory form of cell death and consistent with this, dramatically higher levels of markers of activated macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed in the hearts of Tead1 knockout mice. Blocking necroptosis by administration of necrostatin-1 rescued Tead1 deletion-induced heart failure. Mechanistically, genome-wide transcriptome and ChIP-seq analysis revealed that in adult hearts, Tead1 directly activates a large set of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes required for assembly of the electron transfer complex and the production of ATP. Loss of Tead1 expression in adult CMs increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, disrupted the structure of mitochondria, reduced complex I-IV driven oxygen consumption and ATP levels, resulting in the activation of necroptosis. This study identifies an unexpected paradigm in which TEAD1 is essential for postmitotic CM survival by maintaining the expression of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes required for ATP synthesis.
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The RNA-seq data generated in this study have been deposited in the Sequences Read Archive at the NCBI under SRA accession numbers PRJNA575531. The TEAD1 adult mouse heart ChIP-seq data has been deposited in NCBI GEO database under the accession number GSE124008. Reagents described in the study will be available upon request.
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We thank Drs. B. Paul Herring and David Fulton for a critical reading of the manuscript. The authors appreciate Drs. John Johnson, Bobby Thomas at Augusta University, Xiongwen Chen at Temple University and Yang Kevin Xiang at University of California, Davis for their inspiring discussion.
The work is supported by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH (R01HL149995 to JZ; R01HL132182 to WC). JZ is a recipient of Established Investigator Award (17EIA33460468) and Transformational Project Award (19TPA34910181) from American Heart Association. KD is supported by a postdoctoral fellowship (19POST34450071) from American Heart Association. IO is supported by a K99 award (K99HL153896) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.
Not applicable. No human subjects were involved in this study.
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Liu, J., Wen, T., Dong, K. et al. TEAD1 protects against necroptosis in postmitotic cardiomyocytes through regulation of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes. Cell Death Differ (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00732-5
International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2021)