Melanoma cells are highly resistant to conventional genotoxic agents, and BRAFV600/MEK-targeted therapies as well as immunotherapies frequently remain inefficient. Alternative means to treat melanoma, in particular through the induction of programmed cell death modalities such as apoptosis or necroptosis, therefore still need to be explored. Here, we report that melanoma cell lines expressing notable amounts of RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL, the key players of necroptosis signal transduction, fail to execute necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, the activity of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) appears to prevent RIPK1 from contributing to cell death induction, since TAK1 inhibition by (5Z)-7-Oxozeaenol, deletion of MAP3K7 or the expression of inactive TAK1 were sufficient to sensitize melanoma cells to RIPK1-dependent cell death in response to TNFα or TRAIL based combination treatments. However, cell death was executed exclusively by apoptosis, even when RIPK3 expression was high. In addition, TAK1 inhibitor (5Z)-7-Oxozeaenol suppressed intrinsic or treatment-induced pro-survival signaling as well as the secretion of cytokines and soluble factors associated with melanoma disease progression. Correspondingly, elevated expression of TAK1 correlates with reduced disease free survival in patients diagnosed with primary melanoma. Overall, our results therefore demonstrate that TAK1 suppresses the susceptibility to RIPK1-dependent cell death and that high expression of TAK1 indicates an increased risk for disease progression in melanoma.
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We mourn the passing of our thoughtful and enthusiastic co-author, colleague and friend Martin Leverkus. LGP and MR kindly acknowledge support by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement #642295 (MEL-PLEX). MR and DPD also receive support from the German Research Foundation (FOR2036 (MO 3226/1-1), DI 2440/3-1). MR receives further support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreements #766069 (GLIO-TRAIN), #675448 (TRAIN-ERS)) and the Health Research Board Ireland (HRA POR 2013 245, HRA POR 2015 1091).
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Edited by M. Piacentini
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