Inactivated Sendai virus particle (or hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope; HVJ-E) has been previously reported to possess antitumour properties that activate antitumour immunity. Two glycoproteins, fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), are present on the surface of HVJ-E. HN is necessary for binding to receptors such as acidic gangliosides, and F induces membrane fusion by associating with membrane lipids. We previously reported that liposomes reconstituted with F but not HN showed antitumour activity by inducing IL-6 secretion in dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that F protein is capable of eliciting antitumour activity. Here, we attempted to deliver F gene into tumour tissue in mice by electroporation and demonstrated that F gene therapy retarded tumour growth, increased CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell infiltration into tumours and induced tumour-specific IFN-γ T-cell response. However, neutralisation of IL-6R signalling did not impact F plasmid-mediated antitumour effect. Instead, we found that F plasmid treatment resulted in a significant increase in the secretion of the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) by tumour-infiltrating T cells. Neutralising antibody against RANTES abolished the antitumour effect of F plasmid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, F gene therapy may show promise as a novel therapeutic for single or combined cancer immunotherapy.
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We thank Kotaro Saga for providing the pCY4B and pCY4B-F plasmids. The authors received donations from Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd. and Stemrim, Inc. for the research of this article.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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