COMMD10, a member of COMMD protein, has been proved to target p65 NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) subunit and reduce its nuclear translocation, thereby leading to the inactivation of NF-kappaB pathway and suppression of colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study is to explore its expression pattern and tissue distribution in human normal tissues and other tumor tissues and to investigate the relevant mechanism. We firstly provided the expression profile and histological distribution of COMMD10 in various BALB/c mice tissues and identified the biological distribution of COMMD10 in different kinds of human normal and tumor tissues. We verified the expression profile of COMMD10 using TCGA database. The interacting genes of COMMD10 were predicted by using STRING using. Finally, we performed database, and the microRNAs targeting COMMD10 were predicted using miRDB, miRWalk, TargetScan and microRNA. GO and KEGG pathway analyses were performed to predict the biological function of COMMD10 and its interacting genes. mRNA expression of COMMD10 showed the highest level in the lung and spleen, and the lowest level in the heart and brain. Immunohistochemistry detection revealed that COMMD10 was expressed in different tissues with different degrees and was was located mainly in the cytoplasm. Subsequently, we showed that COMMD10 displayed various degrees of expression in different human normal tissues that mainly located in cytoplasm, while COMMD10 of liver cells resided in both nucleus and cytoplasm. All the tumor tissues except breast small cell carcinoma, breast phyllodes tumor, lung adenocarcinoma, thymoma, cervical cancer and bladder urothelial carcinoma showed that COMMD10 was positive staining in cytoplasm. Kaplan–Meier plotter indicated that renal clear cell carcinoma patients with increased expression level of COMMD10 exhibited longer survival. STRING database revealed that COMMD10 had 41 interacting genes, and data from 4 different databases indicated that hsa-miR-590-3p may be the potential regulator of COMMD10. GO analysis demonstrated that COMMD10 and its interacting genes were mainly enriched in Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complexes, binding and transport of copper ions, the transport and steady-state maintenance of copper ions, transcription, translation and transport of proteins, and negatively regulate the activity of NF-kappaB transcription factors. KEGG pathway showed that COMMD10 and its interacting genes were mainly involved in renal cell carcinoma, HIF-1 signaling pathways, ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis, endocytosis and mineral absorption. COMMD10 may play a tumor suppressive role in renal clear cell carcinoma through the miR-590-3p-COMMD10-Cul2-RBX1-NF-κB/HIF/NRF2 pathway and regulate the chemotherapy resistance of various tumor cells to cisplatin.
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This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81602685, 81672992); the Science and Technology Projects in Guangdong Province (Grant Nos. 2018-1201-SF-0019, 2012B031800262); and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant Nos. 2017A030313486, S2013040013505). We thank State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern Medical University for providing experimental platform.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Southern Medical University. All the participants provided their written informed consent to be included in the study. The animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the Southern Medical University and performed in accordance with the “Guidelines for Experimental Animals” of the Ministry of Science and Technology (Beijing, China). The 4-week-old male BALB/c mice were purchased from the Experimental Animal Center of Southern Medical University, license No.: SCXK (Guangdong) 2011-0015. The BALB/c mice need not to be grouped, and hence we did not have randomization or blind methods.
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