Tumour immunotherapy has achieved remarkable clinical success in many different types of cancer in the past two decades. The outcome of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer patients has been linked to the quality and magnitude of T cell, NK cell, and more recently, B cell within the tumour microenvironment, suggesting that the immune landscape of a tumour is highly connected to patient response and prognosis. It is critical to understanding tumour immune microenvironments for identifying immune modifiers of cancer progression and developing cancer immunotherapies. The infiltration of solid tumours by immune cells with anti-tumour activity is both a strong prognostic factor and a therapeutic goal. Recent approaches and applications of new technologies, especially single-cell mRNA analysis in dissecting tumour microenvironments have brought important insights into the biology of tumour-infiltrating immune cells, revealed a remarkable degree of cellular heterogeneity and distinct patterns of immune response. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the understanding of tumour infiltrated lymphocytes, their prognostic benefit, and predictive value for immunotherapy.
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Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Yang, Y. et al. The prognostic and biology of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in the immunotherapy of cancer. Br J Cancer 129, 1041–1049 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-023-02321-y