The past decade has witnessed a revolution in cancer treatment by the shift from conventional drugs (chemotherapies) towards targeted molecular therapies and immune-based therapies, in particular the immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). These immunotherapies selectively release the host immune system against the tumour and have shown unprecedented durable remission for patients with cancers that were thought incurable such as advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). The prediction of therapy response is based since the first anti-PD-1/PD-L1 molecules FDA and EMA approvals on the level of PD-L1 tumour cells expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and recently more or less on tumour mutation burden in the USA. However, not all aNSCLC patients benefit from immunotherapy equally, since only around 30% of them received ICIs and among them 30% have an initial response to these treatments. Conversely, a few aNSCLC patients could have an efficacy ICIs response despite low PD-L1 tumour cells expression. In this context, there is an urgent need to look for additional robust predictive markers for ICIs efficacy in thoracic oncology. Understanding of the mechanisms that enable cancer cells to adapt to and eventually overcome therapy and identifying such mechanisms can help circumvent resistance and improve treatment. However, more than a unique universal marker, the evaluation of several molecules in the tumour at the same time, particularly by using multiplex immunostaining is a promising open room to optimise the selection of patients who benefit from ICIs. Therefore, urgent further efforts are needed to optimise to individualise immunotherapy based on both patient-specific and tumour-specific characteristics. This review aims to rethink the role of multiplex immunostaining in immuno-thoracic oncology, with the current advantages and limitations in the near-daily practice use.
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Parra, E.R., Ilié, M., Wistuba, I.I. et al. Quantitative multiplexed imaging technologies for single-cell analysis to assess predictive markers for immunotherapy in thoracic immuno-oncology: promises and challenges. Br J Cancer 129, 1417–1431 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-023-02318-7