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Molecular Diagnostics

Checkpoint inhibitors in a marriage: consented or arranged?


There is currently a strong development of therapeutic combinations with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). The most promising combinations with CPIs concern anti-angiogenic agents and BRAF/MEK inhibitors. The timing of the initiation of the combination should be particularly well investigated for chemotherapy. Combinations between CPIs raise questions about risk/benefit ratio and overall clinical activity.

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Fig. 1: A decade of hope with CPIs: from reality to new challenges.


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We would like to thank the UCA Office of International Scientific Visibility for comments on the English version of the manuscript.


Funding is acknowledged from the French Government (Agence Nationale de Recherche, ANR) through the ‘Investments for the Future’ LABEX SIGNALIFE (ANR-11-LABX-0028-01 and IDEX UCAJedi ANR-15-IDEX-01) and [AD-ME project R19162DD]; CANC’AIR Genexposomic project, Canceropole PACA; DREAL PACA, ARS PACA, Région Sud, INSERM cancer; INCA Plan Cancer; Children Medical Safety Research Institute (CMSRI, Vaccinophagy project R17033DJA).

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PB, BM, CB, PH and GM participated in writing the article. PB, BM and GM participated in the preparation of the figure. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Gerard Milano.

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PB and BM declare no financial ties with any organisation that might have an interest in the submitted work over the previous 3 years and no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. GM has received honoraria from MERCK, Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS) for lectures specifically on the covered subject. PH has received honoraria from AstraZeneca, BMS, MSD, Lilly, Bayer, Pfizer, ThermoFisher, Roche, Illumina, Novartis, Biocartis, Janssen and Abbvie for lectures, consulting fees and membership on their advisory board.

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Brest, P., Refae, S., Mograbi, B. et al. Checkpoint inhibitors in a marriage: consented or arranged?. Br J Cancer 126, 1834–1836 (2022).

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