The growth of cancer tissue is thought to be considered driven by a small subpopulation of cells, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are located at the apex of a hierarchy in a cancer tissue with self-renewal, differentiation and tumorigenic potential that produce the progeny in the tissue. Although CSCs are generally believed to play a critical role in the growth, metastasis, and recurrence of cancers, the origin of CSCs remains to be reconsidered. We hypothesise that, chronic diseases, including obesity and diabetes, establish the cancer-inducing niche (CIN) that drives the undifferentiated/progenitor cells into CSCs, which then develop malignant tumours in vivo. In this context, a CIN could be traced to chronic inflammation that involves long-lasting tissue damage and repair after being exposed to factors such as cytokines and growth factors. This must be distinguished from the cancer microenvironment, which is responsible for cancer maintenance. The concept of a CIN is most important for cancer prevention as well as cancer therapy.
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Afify, S.M., Hassan, G., Seno, A. et al. Cancer-inducing niche: the force of chronic inflammation. Br J Cancer 127, 193–201 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-022-01775-w