Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, with a 5-year survival rate that still hovers at ~60% despite recent advancements. The advanced stage upon diagnosis, limited success with effective targeted therapy and lack of reliable biomarkers are among the key factors underlying the marginally improved survival rates over the decades. Prevention, early detection and biomarker-driven treatment adaptation are crucial for timely interventions and improved clinical outcomes. Liquid biopsy, analysis of tumour-specific biomarkers circulating in bodily fluids, is a rapidly evolving field that may play a striking role in optimising patient care. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards advancing liquid biopsies for non-invasive early cancer detection, prognosis, treatment adaptation, monitoring of residual disease and surveillance of recurrence. While these emerging technologies have immense potential to improve patient survival, numerous methodological and biological limitations must be overcome before their implementation into clinical practice. This review outlines the current state of knowledge on various types of liquid biopsies in HNSCC, and their potential applications for diagnosis, prognosis, grading treatment response and post-treatment surveillance. It also discusses challenges associated with the clinical applicability of liquid biopsies and prospects of the optimised approaches in the management of HNSCC.
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This study was supported by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01DE027809 to EI, R01DE028674 to NA and MWL and U01CA230691 to NA.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Mishra, V., Singh, A., Chen, X. et al. Application of liquid biopsy as multi-functional biomarkers in head and neck cancer. Br J Cancer 126, 361–370 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01626-0