Table. 2 Association between physical activity, grip strength, sedentary behaviour and malignant melanoma (at chronically/intermittently UV-exposed skin).

From: Association between physical activity, grip strength and sedentary behaviour with incidence of malignant melanoma: results from the UK Biobank

  Total malignant melanoma Malignant melanoma at chronically UV-exposed skin Malignant melanoma at intermittently UV-exposed skin
  Cases HR (95% CI) p-value Cases HR (95% CI) p-value Cases HR (95% CI) p-value
Physical activity—basic model
  Overall 1239 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.892 507 0.95 (0.86–1.04) 0.260 712 1.05 (0.97–1.13) 0.211
  Women 559 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 0.519 211 1.03 (0.90–1.19) 0.666 339 1.04 (0.93–1.16) 0.465
  Men 680 0.99 (0.91–1.07) 0.749 296 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 0.101 373 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 0.331
Physical activity—full model
  Overall 1239 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.779 507 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.675 712 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 0.440
  Women 559 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 0.554 211 1.04 (0.90–1.20) 0.606a 339 1.03 (0.92–1.16) 0.573
  Men 680 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 0.958 296 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 0.382 373 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.591
Grip strength—basic model
  Overall 1239 1.23 (1.08–1.40) 0.002b 507 0.99 (0.81–1.22) 0.958 712 1.39 (1.17–1.66) <0.001
  Women 559 1.08 (0.96–1.21) 0.178 211 0.93 (0.77–1.12) 0.417 339 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 0.036
  Men 680 1.16 (1.04–1.29) 0.006 296 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 0.637 373 1.25 (1.08–1.44) 0.002
Grip strength—full model
  Overall 1239 1.10 (0.96–1.26) 0.178 507 0.92 (0.74–1.13) 0.425 712 1.22 (1.02–1.47) 0.031
  Women 559 1.01 (0.89–1.14) 0.900 211 0.87 (0.72–1.06) 0.179 339 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 0.359
  Men 680 1.10 (0.98–1.22) 0.101 296 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.929 373 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 0.035
Sedentary behaviour—basic model
  Overall 1239 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.657 507 0.95 (0.85–1.07) 0.404 712 1.06 (0.97–1.16) 0.231a
  Women 559 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 0.404 211 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 0.638 339 1.09 (0.97–1.23) 0.143a
  Men 680 1.00 (0.91–1.09) 0.951 296 0.96 (0.83–1.10) 0.530 373 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 0.740
Sedentary behaviour—full model
  Overall 1239 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 0.306 507 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.835 712 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 0.164a
  Women 559 1.07 (0.97–1.19) 0.161 211 1.00 (0.84–1.18) 0.963 339 1.12 (0.99–1.27) 0.067a
  Men 680 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 0.755 296 0.98 (0.85–1.14) 0.832 373 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 0.686
  1. Cox proportional hazards regression models with observed exposure and multiply imputed covariable data (overall n = 350,512; women n = 178,340; men n = 172,172). Exposures (physical activity, grip strength, sedentary behaviour) were entered as continuous variables. Associations were modelled linearly and hazard ratios are shown for an interquartile range increase (i.e. 25–75th percentile):
  2. Physical activity: increment of 2751/2627.5/2910 MET-minutes per week of MVPA (overall/women/men).
  3. Grip strength: increment of 17/8/11.5 kg (overall/women/men).
  4. Sedentary behaviour: increment of 3/2.5/3 h per day (overall/women/men).
  5. Basic models were adjusted for age (as time scale), study region (baseline hazard stratification) and in the overall group additionally for gender.
  6. Full models were additionally adjusted for education, pack years, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, height, UV sensitivity, time spent outdoors during summer, sunburn occasions during childhood, solarium use and seasonality. Models were also mutually adjusted for physical activity, grip strength and sedentary behaviour.
  7. aIndication for non-linear association. Restricted cubic spline plots in the supplement (Fig. S3).
  8. bPotential violation of the proportional hazards assumption regarding grip strength.