Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

First prototype checkpoint inhibitor B-cell epitope vaccine (PD1-Vaxx) en route to human Phase 1 clinical trial in Australia and USA: exploiting future novel synergistic vaccine combinations


We developed a PD-1 B-cell epitope vaccine (PD1-Vaxx) to rival nivolumab therapy which has received ethics approvals for a Phase 1 clinical trial in Australia. The US FDA granted Investigational New Drug approval to Imugene Ltd for clinical testing in NSCLC. We demonstrated synergistic vaccine combinations with an HER-2 targeted vaccine (B-Vaxx).

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Mechanism of B-cell epitope vaccine.


  1. Ledford, H., Else, H. & Warren, M. Cancer immunologists scoop medicine Nobel prize. Nature 562, 20–21 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Kaumaya, P. T. B-cell epitope peptide cancer vaccines: a new paradigm for combination immunotherapies with novel checkpoint peptide vaccine. Future Oncol. 16, 1767–1791 (2020).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Foy, K. C., Liu, Z., Phillips, G., Miller, M. & Kaumaya, P. T. Combination treatment with HER-2 and VEGF peptide mimics induces potent anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic responses in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 13626–13637 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Miller, M. J., Foy, K. C., Overholser, J. P., Nahta, R. & Kaumaya, P. T. P. HER-3 peptide vaccines/mimics: combined therapy with IGF-1R, HER-2, and HER-1 peptides induces synergistic antitumor effects against breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Oncoimmunology 3, e956012 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Foy, K. C., Miller, M. J., Overholser, J., Donnelly, S. M., Nahta, R. & Kaumaya, P. T. P. IGF-1R peptide vaccines/mimics inhibit the growth of BxPC3 and JIMT-1 cancer cells and exhibit synergistic antitumor effects with HER-1 and HER-2 peptides. Oncoimmunology 3, e956005 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bekaii-Saab, T., Wesolowski, R., Ahn, D. H., Wu, C., Mortazavi, A., Lustberg, M. et al. Phase I immunotherapy trial with two chimeric HER-2 B-cell peptide vaccines emulsified in montanide ISA 720VG and nor-MDP adjuvant in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin. Cancer Res. 25, 3495–3507 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kaumaya, P. T. P., Guo, L., Overholser, J., Penichet, M. L. & Bekaii-Saab, T. Immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy of a novel human PD-1 B-cell vaccine (PD1-Vaxx) and combination immunotherapy with dual trastuzumab/pertuzumab-like HER-2 B-cell epitope vaccines (B-Vaxx) in a syngeneic mouse model. Oncoimmunology 9, 1818437 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Not applicable.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



L.G. wrote the first draft. P.K. edited the manuscript, wrote the revised version and drafted the figure. Both authors approved this manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pravin T. P. Kaumaya.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent to publish

Not applicable.

Data availability

All the data relevant to this manuscript are included in the article or in our previous publications (see refs. 6,7). Other data information’s available on reasonable request from the corresponding author.

Competing interests

P.T.P.K. is co-inventor on patents regarding PD1-Vaxx which has licensed such patents from OSU to Imugene Ltd. P.T.P.K. has partial inventor rights to PD1-Vaxx which has been licensed for commercial development. P.T.P.K. is consultant to Imugene Ltd. L.G. declares no competing interests. No writing assistance was utilised in the production of this manuscript.

Funding information

Funded by National Institutes of Health NIH CA84356, NIH R21CA13508 and Imugene Ltd to P.T.P. Kaumaya.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Guo, L., Kaumaya, P.T.P. First prototype checkpoint inhibitor B-cell epitope vaccine (PD1-Vaxx) en route to human Phase 1 clinical trial in Australia and USA: exploiting future novel synergistic vaccine combinations. Br J Cancer 125, 152–154 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links