Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a critical metabolic enzyme. LDH A (LDHA) overexpression is a hallmark of aggressive malignancies and has been linked to tumour initiation, reprogramming and progression in multiple tumour types. However, successful LDHA inhibition strategies have not materialised in the translational and clinical space. We sought to develop a rational strategy for LDHA suppression in the context of solid tumour treatment.
We utilised a doxycycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system to generate LDHA suppression. Lactate and LDH activity levels were measured biochemically and kinetically using hyperpolarised 13C-pyruvate nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We evaluated effects of LDHA suppression on cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival, as well as on tumour growth, in orthotopic models of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), alone or in combination with radiation.
shRNA suppression of LDHA generated a time-dependent decrease in LDH activity with transient shifts in intracellular lactate levels, a decrease in carbon flux from pyruvate into lactate and compensatory shifts in metabolic flux in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. LDHA suppression decreased cellular proliferation and temporarily stunted tumour growth in ATC and HNSCC xenografts but did not by itself result in tumour cure, owing to the maintenance of residual viable cells. Only when chronic LDHA suppression was combined with radiation was a functional cure achieved.
Successful targeting of LDHA requires exquisite dose and temporal control without significant concomitant off-target toxicity. Combinatorial strategies with conventional radiation are feasible as long as the suppression is targeted, prolonged and non-toxic.
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Ethics approval and consent to participate
For the animal study, all procedures and care were reviewed and approved by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee under Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
The authors declare no competing interests.
The work in this study was funded in part, and V.C.S., S.Y.L., J.A.B., Y.C. and J.S.N. were supported by the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) grant RP170366. V.C.S. is supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research through R03DE028858. J.A.B. is supported by R01CA211150. N.P. is supported by the CPRIT Proteomics and Metabolomics Core Facility (RP170005), NIH (P30 CA125123) and Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center. L.T. and P.L.L. were supported by CPRIT grant RP130397 and NIH grants S10OD012304-01, U01CA235510 and P30CA016672. Work performed in the Flow Cytometry and Cellular Imaging Facility is supported in part by the National Institutes of Health through MD Anderson’s Cancer Center Support grant CA016672. Work performed through the Mouse Metabolism and Phenotyping Core (Seahorse) is supported by NIH UM1HG006348 and NIH R01DK114356. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of their sponsors.
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Chen, Y., Maniakas, A., Tan, L. et al. Development of a rational strategy for integration of lactate dehydrogenase A suppression into therapeutic algorithms for head and neck cancer. Br J Cancer 124, 1670–1679 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01297-x