T-cell tumour exclusion and immunotherapy resistance: a role for CAF targeting


Recent studies have highlighted a major role for cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in promoting immunotherapy resistance by excluding T cells from tumours. Recently, we showed that CAFs can be effectively targeted by inhibiting the enzyme NOX4; this ‘normalises’ CAFs and overcomes immunotherapy resistance. Here we discuss our study and other strategies for CAF targeting.

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Fig. 1: Schematic showing possible strategies for targeting CAFs and overcoming CAF-mediated T-cell exclusion from tumours.


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G.T. conceived the paper and C.H contributed to its writing. Both approved the final version.

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Correspondence to Gareth J. Thomas.

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C.J. Hanley and G.J. Thomas are co-inventors on patent WO2019086579.

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The work described in the commentary was funded through Cancer Research UK (grant nos. A203904, A20256 and A27989) and Medical Research Council UK (grant no. MR/P013414/1).

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Hanley, C.J., Thomas, G.J. T-cell tumour exclusion and immunotherapy resistance: a role for CAF targeting. Br J Cancer (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-1020-6

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