What does it mean to control for confounding, and when do we actually need to do it? To answer this, we need a well-defined research question, driven by the goal of the study. For descriptive goals, we explain that confounding adjustment is often not just unnecessary but can be harmful.
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Conroy, S., Murray, E.J. Let the question determine the methods: descriptive epidemiology done right. Br J Cancer 123, 1351–1352 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-1019-z