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Physical activity and subsequent risk of kidney, bladder and upper urinary tract cancer in the Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study



Although physical activity has been reported as a protective factor for kidney and bladder cancer in epidemiological studies, it is not clear.


In a population-based prospective study of 76,795 Japanese aged 45–74 years, participants were evaluated physical activity by self-administered questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the risk of urological cancer were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards models.


During the 15.1-year follow-up, 202 kidney, 373 bladder and 83 upper urinary tract cancer cases were identified. Physical activity was not significantly associated with kidney, bladder and upper urinary tract cancer risks, with multivariate HRs in the highest versus lowest group of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.74–1.49), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.81–1.39) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.48–1.35), respectively.


Physical activity was not associated with the risk of urological cancer in the Japanese population.

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JPHC Study Group members are listed at


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JPHC members are listed at the following site (as of April 2018): We thank the Iwate, Akita, Nagano, Ibaraki, Niigata, Osaka, Kochi, Nagasaki and Okinawa Cancer Registries for providing incidence data.

Author information

All authors participated in the analysis and interpretation of data; HI carried out the statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. N.S., T.Y., A.G., M. Iwasaki and S.T. critically revised the manuscript. S.T. is principle investigator of the JPHC Study. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


This study was supported by the National Cancer Centre Research and Development Fund (since 2011), and a Grant in Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (from 1989 to 2010)

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study was conducted in compliance with the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Center, Japan. The participants were informed of the study objectives, and those who completed the survey questionnaire were regarded as consenting to participation.

Data availability

For information on how to submit an application for gaining access to JPHC data and/or biospecimens, please follow the instructions at

Correspondence to Norie Sawada.

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