Table 3 Associations between kidney stones and risk of upper tract urothelial carcinoma localizations; Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, 1986–2006

From: Kidney stones and the risk of renal cell carcinoma and upper tract urothelial carcinoma: the Netherlands Cohort Study

  Subcohort person-time at risk (y) UTUC overalla Renal pelvis Ureter  
   No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) P. heterogeneityf
Unadjusted analyses
History of kidney stones
All participants b
No 67,389 118 1 (reference) 72 1 (reference) 46 1 (reference)  
Yes 5981 22 1.64 (1.02–2.64) 14 1.74 (0.95–3.16) 8 1.49 (0.70–3.16) 0.841
Multivariable-adjusted analyses
History of kidney stones
All participants c
No 67,389 118 1 (reference) 72 1 (reference) 46 1 (reference)  
Yes 5981 22 1.66 (1.03–2.68) 14 1.76 (0.96–3.23) 8 1.50 (0.71–3.18) 0.841
P for interactiond    0.923   0.395  g  
Males only e
No 28,774 81 1 (reference) 49 1 (reference) 32 1 (reference)  
Yes 4284 19 1.65 (0.98–2.79) 11 1.59 (0.81–3.14) 8 1.74 (0.80–3.80) 0.835
Females only e
No 38,615 37 1 (reference) 23 1 (reference) 14 1 (reference)  
Yes 1697 3 1.70 (0.51–5.72) 3 2.77 (0.80–9.57) 0 g
Age at first occurrence of kidney stones (participants with kidney stones only)
All participants c
<40 2354 11 1.76 (0.69–4.52) 5 1.13 (0.30–4.22) 6 4.79 (0.83–27.71) 0.892
≥40 3552 11 1 (reference) 9 1 (reference) 2 1 (reference)  
  1. aUTUC Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma, Overall no selection on subtypes by localization
  2. bModel adjusted for age at baseline (y), sex (male/female), and age at baseline (y) as a time-varying covariate
  3. cModel adjusted for age at baseline (y), sex (male/female), body mass index (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current), smoking intensity (cig/d, centered), smoking duration (y, centered), hypertension (yes, no), and age at baseline (y) as a time-varying covariate
  4. dTest on whether sex modifies the (multivariable-adjusted) relationship between the history of kidney stones and UTUC risk, based on the Wald test for the interaction term
  5. eModel adjusted for age at baseline (y), body mass index (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current), smoking intensity (cig/d, centered), smoking duration (y, centered), hypertension (yes, no), and age at baseline (y) as a time-varying covariate
  6. fTest for heterogeneity between renal pelvis and ureter subtypes
  7. gInsufficient number of exposed cases