Table 2 Associations between kidney stones and risk of renal cell carcinoma subtypes; Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, 1986–2006

From: Kidney stones and the risk of renal cell carcinoma and upper tract urothelial carcinoma: the Netherlands Cohort Study

  Subcohort person-time at risk (y) RCC overalla ccRCCa pRCCa  
   No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) P. heterogeneityf
Unadjusted analyses
History of kidney stones
All participants b
No 67,294 473 1 (reference) 296 1 (reference) 34 1 (reference)  
Yes 5982 71 1.40 (1.06–1.85) 36 1.15 (0.80–1.66) 14 3.20 (1.64–6.25) 0.001
Multivariable-adjusted analyses
History of kidney stones
All participants c
No 67,294 473 1 (reference) 296 1 (reference) 34 1 (reference)  
Yes 5982 71 1.39 (1.05–1.84) 36 1.14 (0.79–1.65) 14 3.08 (1.55–6.11) 0.001
P for interactiond    0.815   0.593   0.022  
Males only e
No 28,706 285 1 (reference) 172 1 (reference) 30 1 (reference)  
Yes 4285 60 1.42 (1.04–1.93) 31 1.20 (0.80–1.81) 11 2.37 (1.16–4.85) 0.084
Females only e         
No 38,588 188 1 (reference) 124 1 (reference) 4 1 (reference)  
Yes 1697 11 1.30 (0.68–2.50) 5 0.88 (0.35–2.22) 3 16.37 (3.53–75.89) 0.756
Age at first occurrence of kidney stones (participants with kidney stones only)         
All participants c         
<40 2354 40 2.10 (1.21–3.65) 17 1.43 (0.70–2.93) 9 3.52 (0.95–13.01) 0.854
≥40 3553 31 1 (reference) 19 1 (reference) 5 1 (reference)  
  1. aRCC renal cell carcinoma, Overall no selection on morphological subtypes, ccRCC clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, pRCC papillary renal cell carcinoma
  2. bModel adjusted for age at baseline (y), sex (male/female), and age at baseline (y) as a time-varying covariate
  3. cModel adjusted for age at baseline (y), sex (male/female), body mass index (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current), smoking intensity (cig/d, centered), smoking duration (y, centered), hypertension (yes, no), and age at baseline (y) as a time-varying covariate
  4. dTest on whether sex modifies the (multivariable-adjusted) relationship between the history of kidney stones and RCC risk, based on the Wald test for the interaction term
  5. eModel adjusted for age at baseline (y), body mass index (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current), smoking intensity (cig/d, centered), smoking duration (y, centered), hypertension (yes, no), and age at baseline (y) as a time-varying covariate
  6. fTest for heterogeneity between histological RCC subtypes