Table 5 Risk of obesity-related cancer according to combined category of weight status change and metabolic dysfunction

From: Midlife weight gain is a risk factor for obesity-related cancer

Weight status changea/metabolic dysfunction N Baseline BMIa Follow-up BMIa PY Cases I/1000 py HR (95% CI)b
Not overweightc/without MetDys 2063 23.7 24.4 32,269 136 4.21 1.00
Not overweight/with MetDys 296 25.5 26.2 4146 21 5.06 1.24 (0.78, 1.98)
Became overweightd/without MetDys 550 24.3 28.8 8003 58 7.25 1.72 (1.26, 2.36)
Became overweight/with MetDys 124 25 30.3 1677 14 8.35 2.05 (1.18, 3.55)
Sustained overweighte/without MetDys 558 29.9 32.2 8855 52 5.87 1.21 (0.87, 1.69)
Sustained overweight/with MetDys 259 32.1 34.4 3762 29 7.71 1.58 (1.05, 2.38)
  1. CI confidence interval, HR hazards ratio, I/1000 py incidence of cancer cases per 1000 person-years, MetDy metabolic dysfunction.
  2. aMean BMI at baseline and at the end of weight change period (average follow-up of 14 years).
  3. bAdjusted for age, sex, height, education, cigarettes per day, alcohol intake and physical activity.
  4. cWomen with BMI <25 kg/m2 and men with BMI <30 kg/m2 at baseline who had no change in BMI category over ~14-year weight change period.
  5. dWomen with BMI <25 kg/m2 at baseline who had BMI ≥25 kg/m2 at the end of weight change period; men with BMI <30 kg/m2 at baseline who developed BMI ≥30 kg/m2 at the end of weight change period.
  6. eWomen with BM ≥25 kg/m2 and men with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 at baseline who remained overweight throughout the weight change period