Table 1 Summary population attributable fractions and attributable cases, by risk factor, sex and country, 2015

From: The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015

  All cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (ICD-10 C00-C97 excluding C44), 2015
  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
  PAF (%) Attrib. cases PAF (%) Attrib. cases PAF (%) Attrib. cases PAF (%) Attrib. cases PAF (%) Attrib. cases
Males
 Cancer incidence 152,891 15,184 9,837 4,650 182,562
 Tobacco smoking 17.3 26,375 21.1 3,204 18.6 1,832 17.8 830 17.7 32,242
 Overweight and obesity 5.2 7,960 6.0 909 4.6 450 5.3 248 5.2 9,567
 Occupation 4.9 7,458 5.8 875 5.3 520 5.0 234 5.0 9,087
 Radiation—UV 3.9 5,899 3.9 587 3.7 364 3.8 174 3.8 7,025
 Insufficient fibre 3.1 4,713 3.5 529 3.3 322 3.7 171 3.1 5,735
 Alcohol 3.0 4,634 3.8 572 3.2 319 3.5 164 3.1 5,689
 Infections 3.0 4,539 4.0 608 2.8 279 3.8 178 3.1 5,605
 Processed meat 2.0 3,096 2.3 346 2.1 204 2.4 112 2.1 3,758
 Radiation—ionising 1.7 2,675 1.6 239 2.0 196 1.7 80 1.7 3,190
 Air pollution 1.1 1,636 1.0 146 0.8 82 0.8 38 1.0 1,901
 Insufficient physical activity 0.5 794 0.6 85 0.5 51 0.6 27 0.5 957
 All of the above 38.0 58,141 43.3 6,567 39.0 3,838 39.9 1,856 38.6 70,425
Females
 Cancer incidence 146,862 16,266 9,251 4,606 176,985
 Tobacco smoking 12.1 17,738 15.6 2,532 13.4 1,241 11.3 519 12.4 22,029
 Overweight and obesity 7.5 11,036 7.6 1,244 6.4 590 7.0 324 7.5 13,194
 Infections 4.0 6,083 5.1 832 3.9 364 4.4 202 4.2 7,481
 Radiation—UV 3.8 5,541 3.5 570 3.4 311 3.4 157 3.7 6,579
 Alcohol 3.5 5,202 3.3 538 3.3 301 3.5 163 3.5 6,205
 Insufficient fibre 3.3 4,917 3.5 564 3.4 316 3.5 161 3.4 5,958
 Occupation 2.4 3,528 2.8 462 2.6 241 2.5 114 2.5 4,338
 Radiation—ionising 2.1 3,128 1.9 314 2.4 221 2.2 100 2.1 3,764
 Not breastfeeding 1.4 2,117 1.5 248 1.4 132 1.9 86 1.5 2,582
 Air pollution 1.0 1,442 0.9 142 0.8 74 0.7 32 1.0 1,690
 Processed meat 0.9 1,330 0.9 145 0.8 73 1.0 46 0.9 1,594
 Postmenopausal hormones 0.7 1,089 0.8 132 1.2 107 0.9 43 0.8 1,371
 Insufficient physical activity 0.5 801 0.5 86 0.5 49 0.5 25 0.5 959
 Oral contraceptives 0.5 667 0.5 79 0.3 32 0.7 30 0.5 807
 All of the above 36.4 53,480 39.7 6,455 36.5 3,373 36.1 1,663 36.8 65,130
Persons
 Cancer incidence 299,753 31,450 19,088 9,256 359,547
 Tobacco smoking 14.7 44,113 18.2 5,736 16.1 3,073 14.6% 1,349 15.1 54,271
 Overweight and obesity 6.3 18,996 6.8 2,153 5.4% 1,040 6.2 572 6.3 22,761
 Radiation—UV 3.8 11,440 3.7 1,157 3.5 675 3.6 332 3.8 13,604
 Occupation 3.7 11,078 4.4 1,373 4.0 765 3.8 353 3.8 13,558
 Infections 3.5 10,622 4.6 1,441 3.4 643 4.1 380 3.6 13,086
 Alcohol 3.3 9,836 3.5 1,110 3.3 621 3.5 327 3.3 11,894
 Insufficient fibre 3.2 9,630 3.5 1,093 3.3 638 3.6 332 3.3 11,693
 Radiation—ionising 1.9 5,803 1.8 553 2.2 417 1.9 180 1.9 6,954
 Processed meat 1.5 4,426 1.6 490 1.4 276 1.7 159 1.5 5,352
 Air pollution 1.0 3,078 0.9 288 0.8 156 0.8 70 1.0 3,591
 Not breastfeeding 0.7 2,117 0.8 248 0.7 132 0.9 86 0.7 2,582
 Insufficient physical activity 0.5 1,595 0.5 171 0.5 100 0.6 51 0.5 1,917
 Postmenopausal hormones 0.4 1,089 0.4 132 0.6 107 0.5 43 0.4 1,371
 Oral contraceptives 0.2 667 0.2 79 0.2 32 0.3 30 0.2 807
 All of the above 37.3 111,722 41.5 13,038 37.8 7,207 38.0 3,519 37.7 135,507