Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Use of the Hall technique by specialist paediatric dentists: a global perspective


Background The Hall technique (HT) is popular with UK paediatric dentists (PDs). Global PDs perception/use of HT is unknown.

Aim To investigate global PDs opinions/use of HT.

Materials and methods A cross-sectional questionnaire of 26 questions was sent to specialist PDs across the globe.

Results Responses of 709 PDs from six continents were obtained. The majority (n = 654, 92.32%) had heard about HT but only 50.6% (n = 358) used it, with wide country variations. Respectively, 37.5%, 31.5% and 31% were neutral, against or supportive of HT when they initially heard about it. Only 17% of HT users said it was always the treatment of choice for non-pulpal asymptomatic carious primary molars (NPACPMs), 62% would take a pre-operative radiograph, 65% would consider using high speed drills before HT, 63% would never consider HT under general anaesthesia, 56% would use HT under N2O sedation. Finally, in a clinical scenario of a NPACPM in a cooperative 6-year-old, 75% of PDs would choose conventional restorative methods over the HT.

Conclusion The HT is recognised, but not used, by an outright majority of PDs across the globe. Identifiable barriers such as lack of training, perception as substandard dentistry and perceived lack of evidence reduced its use.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Chisini L A, Collares K, Cademartori M G et al. Restorations in primary teeth: a systematic review on survival and reasons for failures. Int J Paediatr Dent 2018; 28: 123-139.

  2. Seale N S, Randall R. The use of stainless steel crowns: a systematic literature review. Paediatr Dent 2015; 37: 145-160.

  3. Innes N P, Evans D J, Stirrups D R. The Hall Technique; a randomized controlled clinical trial of a novel method of managing carious primary molars in general dental practice: acceptability of the technique and outcomes at 23 months. BMC Oral Health 2007; 7: 18.

  4. Innes N P, Stirrups D R, Evans D J, Hall N, Leggate M. A novel technique using preformed metal crowns for managing carious primary molars in general practice - a retrospective analysis. Br Dent J 2006; 200: 451-454; discussion 444.

  5. Kidd E. Should deciduous teeth be restored? Reflections of a cariologist. Dent Update 2012; 39: 159-162, 165-166.

  6. Roberts A, McKay A, Albadri S. The use of Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialist paediatric dentists in the UK. Br Dent J 2018; 224: 48-52.

  7. Deery C. The Hall technique: a paradigm shift in our care of children with caries. Dent Update 2015; 42: 903-904.

  8. Boyd D H, Page L F, Thomson W M. The Hall Technique and conventional restorative treatment in New Zealand children's primary oral health care - clinical outcomes at two years. Int J Paediatr Dent 2018; 28: 180-188.

  9. Santamaría R M, Innes N P T, Machiulskiene V, Schmoeckel J, Alkilzy M, Splieth C H. Alternative Caries Management Options for Primary Molars: 2.5-Year Outcomes of a Randomised Clinical Trial. Caries Res 2017; 51: 605-614.

  10. Ludwig K H, Fontana M, Vinson L A, Platt J A, Dean J A. The success of stainless steel crowns placed with the Hall technique: a retrospective study. J Am Dent Assoc 2014; 145: 1248-1253.

  11. Croll T P, Killian C M, Simonsen R J. The Hall technique: serious questions remain. Inside Dentistry 2015; 11: 30-32.

  12. Nainar S M. Success of Hall crown questioned. Paediatr Dent 2012; 34: 103.

  13. Erdemci Z Y, Cehreli S B, Tirali R E. Hall versus conventional stainless steel crown techniques: in vitro investigation of marginal fit and microleakage using three different luting agents. Paediatr Dent 2014; 36: 286-290.

  14. Rutkauskas J S. What distinguishes the United States. A message from your CEO. Paediatr Dent Today 2011; 47: Issue 6.

  15. Hussein I, AlHalabi M, Kowash M, Khamis A H. Contemporary dental caries management concepts in paediatric dentistry: A survey of awareness and practice of a group of Gulf Cooperation Council Dentists. Stoma Edu J 2017; 4: 25-36.

  16. Nainar S M, Feigal R J. Geographic distribution of paediatric dentists in private practice in the United States. Paediatr Dent 2004; 26: 526-529.

  17. Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP). Prevention and management of dental caries in children. Published May 2018 (2nd Edition). Available online at (accessed 13 October 2019).

  18. Brown L, Kenny K, O'Sullivan E. Dental general anaesthetic pre-assessments completed by a specialist—does it change patient outcomes? A UK-based study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019; 29: 162-168.

  19. Evans D, Innes N, Stewart M, Keightley A. The Hall Technique. A Minimum intervention, child centred approach in managing the carious primary molar. A user manual. Version 4, 2015. Available online at (accessed 13 October 2019).

  20. Innes N, Evans D, Hall N. The Hall Technique for managing carious primary molars. Dent Update 2009; 36: 472-474; 477-478.

  21. Horner K, Heaton K. Selection criteria for dental radiography standards. Faculty of General Dental Practitioners of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FGDP). Available online at (accessed 13 October 2019).

  22. Ghaith B, Hussein I. The Hall Technique in paediatric dentistry: a review of the literature and an "All Hall" case report with a 24 month follow up. Stoma Edu J 2017; 4: 208-217.

  23. Clark W, Geneser M, Owais A, Kanellis M, Qian F. Success rates of Hall technique crowns in primary molars: a retrospective pilot study. Gen Dent 2017; 65: 32-35.

  24. Midani R, Splieth C H, Mustafa Ali M, Schmoeckel J, Mourad S M, Santamaria R M. Success rates of preformed metal crowns placed with the modified and standard Hall technique in a paediatric dentistry setting. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019; DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12495.

  25. Evans D J P, Southwick C A P, Foley J I, Innes N P, Pavitt S H, Hall N. The Hall technique: a pilot trial of a novel use of preformed metal crowns for managing carious primary teeth. Citation: Tuith Online, 2000. Dundee University, Scotland. Available online at (accessed 27 January 2019).

  26. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Children could be spared dentists' drill. 7 March 2001. Available online at (accessed 7 July 2019).

  27. Innes N P, Evans D J, Bonifacio C C et al. The Hall Technique 10 years on: Questions and answers. Br Dent J 2017; 222: 478-483.

  28. BaniHani A, Duggal M, Toumba J, Deery C. Outcomes of the conventional and biological treatment approaches for the management of caries in the primary dentition. Int J Paediatr Dent 2018; 28: 12-22.

  29. BaniHani A, Deery C, Toumba J, Duggal M. Effectiveness, costs and patient acceptance of a conventional and a biological treatment approach for carious primary teeth in children. Caries Res 2019; 53: 65-75.

  30. Thakkar R, Jawdekar A. Hall of controversy - evidence-based answers to the Hall technique debate. J Ind Dent Assoc 2017; 11: 24-34.

  31. Elamin F, Abdelazeem N, Salah I, Mirghani Y, Wong F. A randomized clinical trial comparing Hall vs conventional technique in placing preformed metal crowns from Sudan. PLoS ONE 2019; 14: e0217740. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217740.

  32. Innes, N P, Evans D J P. Modern approaches to caries management of the primary dentition. Br Dent J 2013; 214: 559-566.

  33. Foley J. Management of carious primary molar teeth by UK postgraduates in paediatric dentistry. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2010; 11: 294-297.

  34. Foley J. Short communication: A pan-European comparison of the management of carious primary molar teeth by postgraduates in paediatric dentistry. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2012; 13: 41-46.

  35. Innes N, Stewart M, Souster G, Evans D. The Hall Technique; retrospective case-note follow-up of 5year RCT. Br Dent J 2015; 219: 395-400.

  36. Halabi, M, Kowash, M, Hussein I. Hybrid child-friendly biological primary molar restorative alternatives to general anaesthesia. Dent Update 2018; 45: 728-741.

  37. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Paediatric restorative dentistry. Reference manual. Available online at (accessed 13 October 2019).

  38. Innes N P T, Frencken J E, Schwendicke F. Don't know, can't do, won't change: barriers to moving knowledge to action in managing the carious lesion. J Dent Res 2016; 95: 485-486.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Iyad Hussein.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hussein, I., Al Halabi, M., Kowash, M. et al. Use of the Hall technique by specialist paediatric dentists: a global perspective. Br Dent J 228, 33–38 (2020).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links