Obesity and periodontitis are among the most common non-communicable diseases, and epidemiological studies report the influence of obesity in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Data indicate that increased body mass index, waist circumference, percentage of subcutaneous body fat, and serum lipid levels are associated with increased risk to develop periodontitis. The underlying biological mechanisms of this association involve adipose tissue-derived cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, which affect whole-body metabolism and contribute to the development of a low-grade systemic inflammation. Multiple studies report a positive association between these two diseases across diverse populations. Obesity does not appear to impair the success of periodontal therapy. However, currently available evidence is variable and therefore inconclusive. Despite the limited evidence about recommendations on treatment planning, oral healthcare professionals need to be aware of the complexity of obesity to counsel their patients about the importance of maintaining healthy body weight and performing good oral hygiene procedures.
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