Measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) may help physicians to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of relapse for de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but its relevance among patients affected by secondary AML (sAML) is still unknown. We assessed the impact of MRD among 318 adult patients with sAML who received an allogeneic HCT in first complete remission. At the time of HCT, a total of 208 (65%) patients achieved MRD negativity, while 110 (35%) had positive MRD. 2-year overall survival (OS) was 58.8 % (95% CI 52.2–64.9) with leukemia-free survival (LFS) of 50.0 % (95% CI 43.7–56.1), relapse incidence of 34.2% (95% CI 28.4–40.1) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of 23.3 % (95% CI 19–27.7) for the entire cohort. In multivariate analysis, HCT recipients with KPS ≥ 90 experienced less disease recurrence (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4–0.94) with better LFS (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44–0.89) and OS (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39–0.86). There were no differences in major clinical endpoints between patients with MRD-positive and MRD-negative status at the time of HCT. Pre-transplantation assessment of MRD was not informative on post-HCT outcomes in this retrospective registry-based analysis among patients affected by sAML.
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Maffini, E., Labopin, M., Beelen, D.W. et al. Measurable residual disease (MRD) status before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation impact on secondary acute myeloid leukemia outcome. A Study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Bone Marrow Transplant 57, 1556–1563 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-022-01748-w
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