Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring t(1;19)(q23;p13.3); comparison with normal karyotype

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There are few reports on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring t(1;19)(q23;p13.3). We used nationwide registry data of Japan for 2003–2016 to evaluate transplant outcomes and clarified prognostic factors among adult allo-HSCT recipients with B-ALL harboring t(1;19)(q23;p13.3) (n = 125). Compared with cytogenetically normal (CN) B-ALL patients (n = 1057), their 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were comparable (55.4% for t(1;19) and 54.4% for CN; P = 0.76). Considering only patients in first complete hematological remission (CR1), the 3-year OS rates remained comparable (70.5% for t(1;19) and 67.8% for CN; P = 0.86). For t(1;19) patients in CR1, minimal residual disease (MRD) at transplantation was associated with relatively worse outcomes. The 3-year OS rates were 43.6% for patients with MRD and 77.4% for those without it (P = 0.016). The 3-year relapse rates were 54.5% for patients with MRD and 12.8% for those without it (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that MRD at transplantation was a significant risk factor for OS and relapse. In the high-intensity chemotherapy era, t(1;19)(q23;p13.3) did not have a poorer posttransplant prognosis than the normal karyotype. However, even for patients in CR1, MRD at transplantation was associated with comparatively worse OS and higher relapse rates.

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We are grateful to all physicians and staff at the transplant centers who provided clinical data to the Transplant Registry Unified Management Program of the Japan Society of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. We also express gratitude to the staff at the Japan Society of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and the Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for their dedication to the organization and management of the data.

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Correspondence to Satoshi Kaito.

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Kaito, S., Najima, Y., Harada, K. et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring t(1;19)(q23;p13.3); comparison with normal karyotype. Bone Marrow Transplant (2020).

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