Haploidentical HSCT with post transplantation cyclophosphamide versus unrelated donor HSCT in pediatric patients affected by acute leukemia

Abstract

T-cell replete hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a haploidentical donor followed by high doses of cyclophosphamide has been demonstrated to provide the best chances of a cure for many children in need of an allograft but who lack both a sibling and an unrelated donor. In this study we retrospectively compared the outcome of pediatric patients undergoing T-replete haploidentical HSCT (Haplo) for acute leukemia with those undergoing transplantation from unrelated HLA-matched donor (MUD) and HLA mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) from 2012 to 2017 at our Center. Both univariable and multivariable analyses showed similar 5-year overall survival rates for MUD, MMUD, and Haplo patients: 71% (95% CI 56–86), 72% (95% CI 55–90), and 75% (95% CI 54–94), respectively (p = 0.97). Haplo patients showed reduced event-free survival rates compared to MUD and MMUD patients: 30% (95% CI 12–49) versus 70% (95% CI 55–84) versus 53% (95% CI 35–73), respectively (p = 0.007), but these data were not confirmed by a multivariable analysis. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse incidence (RI) were similar for the three groups. Therefore, our data confirm that Haplo is a suitable clinical option for pediatric patients needing HSCT when lacking both an MUD and an MMUD donor.

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Fig. 1: Overall survival of patients included in the study.
Fig. 2

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Associazione Donatrici Italiane Sangue Cordone Ombelicale (ADISCO) sezione Piemonte. We would like to thank Lara Statham for her editorial assistance.

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Correspondence to F. Saglio.

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Saglio, F., Berger, M., Spadea, M. et al. Haploidentical HSCT with post transplantation cyclophosphamide versus unrelated donor HSCT in pediatric patients affected by acute leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01063-2

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