Plerixafor inhibits CXCR4, thus inducing the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). However, the kinetics of plerixafor-induced mobilization of lymphocyte subsets is poorly known. Here, we evaluated the graft content, the engraftment, and the immunological reconstitution of MM patients receiving plerixafor. Thirty-seven patients undergoing one or tandem ASCT were enrolled. After mobilization with cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF, plerixafor was added at hematological recovery regardless of CD34+ cell count. We evaluated the number of CD34+, CD34+/CD38−, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD56+/CD3−, CD4+/CD25+/FOXP3+, and CD138+/CD38+ cells on each apheresis. Hematological and immunological recovery were determined at 30 days, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ASCT. Overall, 34/37 patients mobilized a median of 10.1 × 106 CD34+ cells/Kg (IQ 7.7–13.4). Patients with <20/µL CD34+ cells at plerixafor administration (18/33) had a significantly higher CD34+ cell fold increase, but not a higher absolute number, than 16/33 patients with ≥20/µL CD34+ cells. A similar CD34+ and immune graft composition was reported. A higher number of CD3+ and CD8+ cells/µL was observed at 3 months after first ASCT (p < 0.05) in the group with ≥20 CD34+ cells/µL. Thus, in MM patients, the timing of plerixafor administration influences immunological recovery.
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This research is supported in part by Sanofi which provided Plerixafor vials free of charge.
Conflict of interest
RML received travel grants by Sanofi. All other authors declare no relevant competing financial interests in relation to the work.
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Tolomelli, G., Mancuso, K., Tacchetti, P. et al. The timing of plerixafor addition to G-Csf and chemotherapy affects immunological recovery after autologous stem cell transplant in multiple myeloma. Bone Marrow Transplant (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0756-1