Although cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis are recognized as an important prognostic factor in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the prognostic impact has not been evaluated in allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) recipients. Thus, we assessed 373 Ph-negative ALL patients who underwent allo-SCT. The high-risk (HR) group included those with t(4;11), t(8;14), low hypodiploidy, and complex karyotype, and the standard risk (SR) group included all other karyotypes. Among the 204 patients who underwent a transplant during the first remission (167 in the SR group and 37 in the HR group), the overall survival (OS) rates were similar between these groups (64.1% vs. 80.0% at 5 years, respectively; p = 0.12). Conversely, among the 106 patients who underwent a transplant while not in remission (84 in the SR group and 22 in the HR group), patients in the SR group showed a significantly superior OS rate compared to the HR group (15.4% vs. 4.5% at 5 years, respectively; p = 0.022). These results suggested that treatment outcomes of Ph-negative ALL patients with HR cytogenetic abnormalities may improve following allo-SCT, especially in the first remission. Innovative transplant approaches are warranted in patients who are not in remission.
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We wish to thank all of the staff in the participating institutions of the Kanto Study Group for Cell Therapy.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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