Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) offers the most effective prevention of relapse and has significant overall survival (OS) benefits for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). We conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk AML. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of alternative donors for AML in CR1. We analyzed 1561 patients who underwent HCT from an HLA-matched related donor (MRD), HLA 8/8-matched unrelated donor (MUD), or umbilical cord blood (UCB). The results of a multivariate analysis showed that HCT from UCB (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07–1.52), age ≥50 years (HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.14–1.62), male (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.21–1.66), PS > 1 (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17–2.42), and poor-risk cytogenetics (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.29–1.81) had an inferior prognostic impact on OS. We conclude that an MUD is the best alternative to an HLA identical MRD for patients with AML in CR1. UCB is an alternative option if neither MRD nor MUD are available, or when patients need to receive urgent HCT for poor-risk AML in CR1.
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We thank all the staff at the participating hospitals and centers at the JSHCT for their valuable contributions to this study.
This work was supported in part by the Practical Research Project for Allergic Diseases and Immunology (Research Technology of Medical Transplantation) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED under Grant Number 18ek0510023h0002.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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