The purpose of this retrospective registry study was to investigate the outcome of autoSCT for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) in the rituximab era, including the effects of eventual post-transplant radiotherapy (RT) consolidation. Patients with PMBCL aged between 18 and 70 years who were treated with a first autoSCT between 2000 and 2012 and registered with the EBMT were eligible. Eighty-six patients with confirmed PMBCL and the full data set required for this analysis were evaluable. Sixteen patients underwent autoSCT in remission after first-line therapy (CR/PR1), 44 patients were transplanted with chemosensitive relapsed or primary refractory disease (CR/PR >1), and 24 patients were chemorefractory at the time of autoSCT. With a median follow-up of 5 years, 3-year estimates of relapse incidence, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 6%, 94%, and 100% for CR/PR1; 31%, 64%, and 85% for CR/PR >1; and 52%, 39%, and 41% for REF, respectively. Whilst there was no significant benefit of post-transplant RT in the CR/PR >1 group, RT could completely prevent disease recurrence post d100 in the refractory group. In conclusion, autoSCT with or without consolidating RT is associated with excellent outcome in chemoimmunotherapy-sensitive PMBCL, whereas its benefits seem to be limited in chemoimmunotherapy-refractory disease.
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We thank all EBMT centres that participated in this study. Presented in part in abstract form at the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology, San Francisco, USA, December 6, 2014; and at the 40th Annual Meeting of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Milan, Italy, April 2, 2014.