Table 4 Prognostic factors of inpatient mortality in multiple myeloma (MM) patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

From: Multiple myeloma and SARS-CoV-2 infection: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of inpatient mortality

Prognostic factorsa N Inpatient mortality, no. (%) Unadjusted analysisb Adjusted analysisc GoF P value c-statistic (95% CI)
Odds ratio (95% CI) P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
All patients 167 56 (34)       
Age > 65 years 112 47 (42) 3.7 (1.6–8.3) 0.002 3. (1.4–8.4) 0.006 NA NA
Males 95 39 (41) 2.3 (1.1–4.4) 0.018 3.8 (1.7–8.4) 0.001 NA NA
MM comorbidities and status at hospital admission for COVID-19
Renal disease 32 19 (59) 3.9 (1.7–8.7) <0.001 4.6 (1.9–11.3) <0.001 NA NA
Hypertension 67 28 (42) 1.8 (0.96–3.5) 0.065 1.7 (0.8–3.5) 0.18 NA NA
Active disease or progression 43 21 (49) 2.4 (1.2–4.9) 0.015 2.7 (1.2–6.0) 0.017 NA NA
Reference model: 0.7 0.79 (0.72–0.86)       
MM features at diagnosis and treatment
Monoclonal component, immunoglobulin G 83 22 (27) 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.05 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.18 0.6 0.80 (0.73–0.87)
Renal disease at diagnosis 45 23 (51) 2.8 (1.4–5.7) 0.004 1.3 (0.4–3.7) 0.6 0.8 0.79 (0.72–0.86)
Diagnosis in 2020 (time since diagnosis ≤ 3 months) 25 12 (48) 2.0 (0.9–4.9) 0.10 2.7 (0.7–5.8) 0.19 0.5 0.79 (0.72–0.86)
Prior stem cell transplantation 51 9 (17) 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.004 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.4 0.4 0.79 (0.71–0.86)
  1. CI confidence interval, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, GoF goodness-of-fit, NA not applicable.
  2. aPredefined set of well-established prognostic factors assessed before admission; all variables were dichotomized according to standard categories.
  3. bCrude odds ratio and 95% confidence interval.
  4. cEach logistic model included age, sex, myeloma status, comorbidities (hypertension, renal disease) at diagnosis of COVID-19 (reference model), and one variable from the “Multiple myeloma at diagnosis and treatment” set. Calibration and discrimination of the models were assessed with the Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (GoF P value) and the c-statistic.