Table 2 The comparison of the prevalence of depression and anxiety between the first and second surveys.

From: Depression, anxiety and associated factors among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak: a comparison of two cross-sectional studies

Variables Depression (CES-D > 15) n = 5713 Anxiety (GAD-7 > 4) n = 3240
The first survey The second survey X2 P value The first survey The second survey X2 P value
Gender
male 1514 (33.1) 962 (54.8) 252.31 <0.001 759 (16.6) 614 (35.0) 253.41 <0.001
female 1984 (39.9) 1253 (58.8) 215.16 <0.001 1,055 (21.2) 812 (38.1) 219.85 <0.001
Age (years)
11–15 1745 (31.1) 721 (50.6) 188.68 <0.001 872 (15.6) 465 (32.6) 214.82 <0.001
16–20 1753 (44.4) 1494 (60.7) 161.45 <0.001 942 (23.9) 961 (39.1) 167.66 <0.001
Grade
Junior secondary school 1693 (31.0) 617 (48.9) 145.24 <0.001 848 (15.5) 414 (32.8) 200.48 <0.001
Senior secondary school 1805 (44.1) 1598 (60.9) 181.04 <0.001 966 (23.6) 1,012 (38.6) 172.70 <0.001
School type
Provincial key schools 223 (36.9) 158 (58.7) 36.01 <0.001 138 (22.8) 124 (46.1) 47.89 <0.001
Municipal key schools 537 (32.4) 204 (55.4) 68.68 <0.001 319 (19.3) 133 (36.1) 49.45 <0.001
Ordinary schools 1891 (35.1) 1742 (58.1) 413.57 <0.001 947 (17.6) 1103 (36.8) 383.93 <0.001
Vocational schools 847 (44.4) 111 (44.6) 0.003 0.956 410 (21.5) 66 (26.5) 3.224 0.073
Major class 799 (32.7) 657 (63.7) 285.62 <0.001 493 (20.2) 417 (40.4) 153.56 <0.001
Sleep duration/day
<6 h 283 (63.5) 322 (75.9) 16.01 <0.001 185 (41.5) 233 (55.0) 15.81 <0.001
6–8 h 2089 (39.0) 1626 (57.3) 252.07 <0.001 1085 (20.2) 1029 (36.3) 249.18 <0.001
>8 h 1126 (30.0) 267 (42.7) 39.35 <0.001 544 (14.5) 164 (26.2) 54.02 <0.001
Study duration/day
<4 h 704 (45.7) 163 (50.9) 2.97 0.085 341 (22.1) 105 (32.8) 16.65 <0.001
4–8 h 1711 (34.3) 1298 (54.4) 270.35 <0.001 862 (17.3) 796 (33.3) 239.77 <0.001
>8 h 1083 (35.9) 695 (64.8) 269.47 <0.001 611 (20.3) 479 (44.7) 241.47 <0.001
Exercise duration/day
<30 min 1924 (43.8) 1.232 (65.5) 247.84 <0.001 999 (22.7) 799 (42.5) 250.76 <0.001
30–60 min 1289 (30.3) 777 (48.9) 174.43 <0.001 651 (15.3) 492 (31.0) 179.82 <0.001
>60 min 285 (31.3) 206 (49.5) 40.92 <0.001 164 (18.0) 135 (32.5) 34.29 <0.001
Change of study efficiency
Lower than before 1449 (47.1) 1605 (61.8) 122.36 <0.001 791 (25.7) 1032 (39.7) 126.97 <0.001
About the same 1751 (31.7) 514 (47.0) 94.83 <0.001 849 (15.4) 332 (30.4) 139.76 <0.001
Higher than before 298 (31.1) 96 (49.0) 23.21 <0.001 174 (18.1) 62 (31.6) 18.21 <0.001
No. of COVID-19 cases at provincial level
10–99 21 (58.3) 4 (66.7) 0.15 0.700 17 (47.2) 2 (33.3) 0.40 0.527
100–999 2721 (37.2) 2067 (58.2) 424.92 0.002 1415 (19.4) 1332 (37.5) 415.41 <0.001
1000–9999 560 (33.1) 91 (44.2) 9.92 <0.001 277 (16.4) 53 (25.7) 11.14 0.001
>10,000 196 (37.5) 53 (43.8) 1.62 0.203 105 (20.1) 39 (32.2) 8.30 0.004
Participating in distance learning 3181 (35.5) 2156 (57.0) 504.96 <0.001 1672 (18.7) 1380 (36.5) 463.79 <0.001
Concerned about entering a higher grade 1955 (44.9) 1789 (62.4) 213.09 <0.001 1052 (24.1) 1183 (41.3) 237.32 <0.001
  1. Bolded Values: P < 0.05.
  2. The percentages of CES-D > 15 and GAD-7 > 4 were presented as n (%).
  3. CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, GAD-7 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale.