a Among 102 participants recruited in this study, 19 did not meet the inclusion criteria and 83 were randomized into two groups. During the intervention stage, two participants in the control group withdrew, as they were given an opportunity to engage in behavioural therapy. In the end, 81 participants completed this trial; and 57 of them (bumetanide group: n = 40, all the parents agreed to scan while two participants waked up during scan; control group: n = 17, only 17 parents agreed to scan) were scanned both at baseline and after 3 months. b, c This figure shows the mean voxel placements in (B left) insula and (C left) visual cortex (VC) from all the studied participants that transformed to the MNI standard space. The colormap indicates the percentage of overlapping. We also show the examples of GABA-edited specta and the fitted GABA/Glx concentrations from (B right) insula and (C right) VC of a representative participant.