Table 4 Smoking status and total and regional gray matter volumes, stratified by alcohol use, in the CARDIA brain MRI cohort

From: Cigarette smoking and gray matter brain volumes in middle age adults: the CARDIA Brain MRI sub-study

  Alcohol non-users Low/high-risk alcohol users
βa 95% CI p βa 95% CI p
Total GM
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −2.32 −8.79, 4.15 0.48 −2.69 −7.63, 2.24 0.28
Current smokers 3.28 −5.53,12.09 0.46 −12.01 −18.54, −5.48 0.0003
Frontal GM
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.48 −3.31, 2.17 0.72 −1.56 −3.62, 0.49 0.14
Current smokers 1.60 −2.01, 5.21 0.38 −3.57 −6.28, −0.85 0.01
Temporal GM
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.48 −2.76, 1.79 0.68 −1.51 −3.25, 0.24 0.09
Current smokers 0.24 −2.86, 3.34 0.88 −4.14 −6.45, −1.84 0.0005
Occipital GM
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.57 −2.07, 0.93 0.46 0.66 −0.46, 1.78 0.25
Current smokers −0.01 −2.06, 2.03 0.99 −1.22 −2.70, 0.27 0.11
Parietal GM
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.04 −1.69, 1.61 0.96 −0.19 −1.49, 1.11 0.77
Current smokers 1.15 −1.10, 3.40 0.32 −0.84 −2.56, 0.88 0.34
Amygdala
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.02 −0.11, 0.07 0.64 −0.02 −0.09, 0.04 0.50
Current smokers −0.02 −0.14, 0.10 0.75 −0.10 −0.18, −0.01 0.03
Insula
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.13 −0.554 0.30 0.56 −0.16 −0.47, 0.16 0.32
Current smokers 0.34 −0.25, 0.92 0.26 −0.70 −1.12, −0.28 0.001
Entorhinal cortex
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers 0.04 −0.06, 0.15 0.43 −0.06 −0.14, 0.02 0.15
Current smokers −0.10 −0.25, 0.05 0.18 −0.06 −0.17, 0.04 0.26
Cingulate
Never-smokers Ref.    Ref.   
Former-smokers −0.24 −0.89, 0.42 0.48 0.004 −0.52, 0.53 0.99
Current smokers −0.15 −1.05, 0.75 0.74 −1.17 −1.87, −0.48 0.001
  1. aCoefficients estimated using fully-adjusted linear regression models including age, sex, education, race, study center, total intracranial volume, hypertension, diabetes, history of vascular disorders, BMI, high cholesterol, respiratory illness, FEV1, depressive symptoms, and illicit drug use