Table 3 Brain gray matter volume across alcohol and smoking groups in the CARDIA brain MRI cohort

From: Cigarette smoking and gray matter brain volumes in middle age adults: the CARDIA Brain MRI sub-study

  Alcohol non-users Light-risk alcohol users High-risk alcohol users
n Betaa (95% CI) Meanb (SE) n Betaa (95% CI) Meanb (SE) n Betaa (95% CI) Meanb (SE)
Never-smokers 156 Ref. 518.44 (1.85) 167 Ref. 520.26 (1.72) 39 Ref. 516.02 (3.54)
Former-smokers 92 −2.32 (−8.79, 4.15) 516.36 (2.38) 85 −0.38 (−6.39, 5.62) 519.69 (2.38) 42 −6.52 (−15.92, 2.88) 512.04 (3.33)
Current smokers 38 3.28 (−5.53, 12.09) 520.50 (3.83) 42 −11.65 (−23.05, −0.26) 511.85 (3.49) 37 −11.11 (−19.60, −2.63) 506.96 (3.91)
  1. aCoefficients and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)
  2. badjusted means and standard errors (SE) estimated using fully-adjusted linear regression models including age, sex, education, race, study center, total intracranial volume, hypertension, diabetes, history of vascular disorders, BMI, high cholesterol, respiratory illness, FEV1, depressive symptoms, and illicit drug use
  3. bAdjusted means and standard errors
  4. Bold values: We were highlighting the statistically significant results