Table 1 Literacy-related and language-related abilities in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

From: Disentangling polygenic associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, educational attainment, literacy and language

LRA (psychological instrument) Mean Score (SE) Mean Age (SE) N (%males) LRA combinations
Reading accuracy and comprehension (WORD69), words 28.44 (9.24) 7.53 (0.31) 5891 (50.6) ---------------------Reading---------------- --------------------------- --------Global LRAs------------- -----------------------------------
Reading accuracy (ALSPAC specific: NBO70), words 7.55 (2.44) 9.87 (0.32) 5738 (49.3)
Reading speeda (NARA II71), passages 105.50 (12.47) 9.88 (0.32) 5189 (49.1)
Reading accuracya (NARA II71), passages 104.11 (13.62) 9.88 (0.32) 5201 (49.1)
Reading speed (TOWRE72), words 82.58 (10.28) 13.83 (0.20) 4247 (48.4)
Non-word reading accuracy (ALSPAC specific: NBO70) 5.24 (2.48) 9.87 (0.32) 5731 (49.2)
Non-word reading speed (TOWRE72) 50.82 (9.38) 13.83 (0.20) 4237 (48.3)
Spelling accuracy (ALSPAC specific: NB) 7.89 (4.39) 7.53 (0.31) 5800 (50.2) -Spelling-
Spelling accuracy (ALSPAC specific: NB) 10.27 (3.43) 9.87 (0.32) 5728 (49.2)
Phonemic awareness (AAT73) 20.23 (9.51) 7.53 (0.31) 5919 (50.6)  
Listening comprehension (WOLD74) 7.50 (1.96) 8.63 (0.30) 5473 (49.9)
Non-word repetition (CNRep75) 7.26 (2.51) 8.63 (0.30) 5464 (49.9)
Verbal intelligencea (WISC-III76) 107.85 (16.74) 8.64 (0.31) 5456 (49.7)
  1. Note: Thirteen LRAs capturing aspects related to reading, spelling, phonemic awareness, listening comprehension, non-word repetition and verbal intelligence were assessed in 7 to 13 year-old ALSPAC participants using both standardised and ALSPAC-specific instruments (Supplementary Information)
  2. LRAs literacy-related and language-related abilities, WORD Wechsler Objective Reading Dimension, ALSPAC Avon Longitudinal study of Parents and Children, NBO ALSPAC-specific assessment developed by Nunes, Bryant and Olson, NARA II The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability-Second Revised British Edition, TOWRE Test Of Word Reading Efficiency, NB ALSPAC-specific assessment developed by Nunes and Bryant, AAT Auditory Analysis Test, WOLD Wechsler Objective Language Dimensions, CNRep Children’s Test of Nonword Repetition, WISC-III Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III
  3. aScores were derived using age norms and adjusted for sex and principal components only before transformation