Fig. 1: Phenotypic variance in literacy-related and language-related abilities explained by polygenic ADHD risk | Translational Psychiatry

Fig. 1: Phenotypic variance in literacy-related and language-related abilities explained by polygenic ADHD risk

From: Disentangling polygenic associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, educational attainment, literacy and language

Fig. 1

a accuracy, c comprehension, s speed, WORD Wechsler Objective Reading Dimension, NBO Nunes, Bryant and Olson (ALSPAC specific instrument), NARA II The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability-Second Revised British Edition, TOWRE Test Of Word Reading Efficiency, NW non-word, NB Nunes and Bryant (ALSPAC specific instrument), PhonAware phonemic awareness, AAT Auditory Analysis Test, WOLD Wechsler Objective Language Dimensions, CNRep Children’s Test of Nonword Repetition, VIQ verbal intelligence quotient, WISC-III Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III, PGC Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, iPSYCH The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder a Schematic representation of polygenic scoring analyses. ADHD polygenic scores were created in ALSPAC using PGC, iPSYCH and PGC + iPSYCH GWAS summary statistics. Rank-transformed LRAs were regressed on Z-standardised ADHD-PGS using ordinary least square regression. b Phenotypic variance in literacy-related and language-related abilities explained by polygenic ADHD risk. *Evidence for association between LRAs and polygenic ADHD risk as observed in PGC ADHD, iPSYCH ADHD and PGC + iPSYCH ADHD samples. Note that all LRAs were associated with polygenic ADHD risk in iPSYCH ADHD and PGC + iPSYCH ADHD passing the experiment-wide error rate (P < 0.007)

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