Table 1 Demographic, behavioral, and sperm characteristics of the study population, stratified by ACE score

From: Reduced levels of miRNAs 449 and 34 in sperm of mice and men exposed to early life stress

Variable Low ACE (0–1) Medium ACE (2–4) High ACE (≥5)
  n = 14 n = 7 n = 7
Age (years), mean ± SD 30.1 ± 4.1 32.4 ± 6.2 36.7 ± 9.6
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 27.1 ± 5.1a 26.7 ± 4.8 26.0 ± 3.9b
Ever smoked, n (%) 8 (57%) 4 (57%) 5 (71%)
Current smoker, n (%) 3 (21%) 1 (14%) 2 (29%)
Alcoholic drinks/wk, median (range) 1.5 (0–14) 1 (0–3) 0.25 (0–28)
Illegal drug use, n (%) 3 (21%) 3 (43%) 3 (43%)
Sperm count (mil/mL), mean ± SD 84 ± 57 115 ± 62 97 ± 68
Sperm motility (% motile), median (range) 66 (35–96) 72 (44–83) 59 (1–80)b
Sperm morphology (% normal), median (range) 8 (2–21) 11 (2–21) 4 (0–12)b
  1. an = 12 for low ACE group
  2. bn = 6 for high ACE group