Table 1 Median and interquartile range of the average phases, MESORs and amplitudes of the daily sinusoid fits for each of the participant groups, the difference between phases of each modality, and statistical significance pairwise comparisons across the three groups (BD n = 36, BPD n = 22 and HC n = 25) using the Wilcoxon statistical hypothesis test

From: Desynchronization of diurnal rhythms in bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder

Within group phase differences tested against zero mean
  BD BPD HC BD (FDR) BPD (FDR) HC (FDR)
HR-ACT (mean ± std) 0.72 ± 4.17 3.11 ± 3.08 0.46 ± 4.06 0.017 <0.001 0.246
HR-SLP (mean ± std) 0.56 ± 3.41 0.99 ± 1.66 −0.83 ± 2.11 0.006 0.006 0.051
ACT-SLP (mean ± std) −0.16 ± 2.90 −2.12 ± 3.21 −1.29 ± 2.87 0.180 0.005 0.004
Group differences in phase, MESOR and amplitude
  BD BPD HC BD vs BPD (FDR) BD vs HC (FDR) BPD vs HC (FDR)
Activity
 Phase (mean ± std) 14.09 ± 2.83 12.34 ± 3.57 12.82 ± 3.31 0.253 0.410 0.403
 MESOR (mean ± std) 0.014 ± 0.004 0.013 ± 0.003 0.014 ± 0.004 0.276 0.418 0.418
 Amplitude (mean ± std) 0.0033 ± 0.0021 0.0026 ± 0.0014 0.0027 ± 0.0013 0.294 0.401 0.380
Sleep
 Phase (mean ± std) 14.25 ± 1.68 14.46 ± 2.07 14.12 ± 1.31 0.398 0.483 0.391
 MESOR (mean ± std) 0.35 ± 0.08 0.34 ± 0.07 0.36 ± 0.07 0.477 0.411 0.385
 Amplitude (mean ± std) 0.11 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.02 0.325 0.444 0.276
Heart rate
 Phase (mean ± std) 14.81 ± 3.21 15.45 ± 2.07 13.28 ± 2.37 0.384 0.086 0.051
 MESOR (mean ± std) 75.24 ± 7.08 77.65 ± 5.69 74.48 ± 2.62 0.251 0.425 0.275
 Amplitude (mean ± std) 8.10 ± 2.54 8.67 ± 3.45 7.41 ± 2.62 0.369 0.300 0.289
  1. To test phase differences against zero mean within groups, a Mann–Whitney test was used at 5% significance level. Correction for multiple testing was performed using the false discovery rate (FDR)
  2. Statistically significant differences at the p = 0.05 level appear in bold. avPhase, avMESOR and avAmplitude denote the mean of the phases, MESORs and amplitudes of the daily sinusoid fits. The units of all phase measures are shown in hours