Mosquito-borne diseases like dengue and malaria cause a significant global health burden. Unfortunately, current insecticides and environmental control strategies aimed at the vectors of these diseases are only moderately effective in decreasing disease burden. Understanding and manipulating the interaction between the mosquito holobiont (i.e., mosquitoes and their resident microbiota) and the pathogens transmitted by these mosquitoes to humans and animals could help in developing new disease control strategies. Different microorganisms found in the mosquito’s microbiota affect traits related to mosquito survival, development, and reproduction. Here, we review the physiological effects of essential microbes on their mosquito hosts; the interactions between the mosquito holobiont and mosquito-borne pathogen (MBP) infections, including microbiota-induced host immune activation and Wolbachia-mediated pathogen blocking (PB); and the effects of environmental factors and host regulation on the composition of the microbiota. Finally, we briefly overview future directions in holobiont studies, and how these may lead to new effective control strategies against mosquitoes and their transmitted diseases.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, Guan-Hong Wang, upon reasonable request.
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This work was supported by the CAS strategic funding via CAS-CSIRO funding scheme (152111KYSB20210011), the National Key R&D Program of China (2022YFF0710603), the National Science Foundation of China (32270538), and the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (6222046) awarded to G.H.W. The work was also supported by CSIRO strategic funding via CAS-CSIRO funding scheme to PNP. We thank Lei Jiang and Wenxin Ma for their helpful edits on earlier versions of Figs. 2 and 3.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Zheng, R., Wang, Q., Wu, R. et al. Holobiont perspectives on tripartite interactions among microbiota, mosquitoes, and pathogens. ISME J 17, 1143–1152 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-023-01436-7