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Increased genetic diversity loss and genetic differentiation in a model marine diatom adapted to ocean warming compared to high CO2

Abstract

Although high CO2 and warming could act interactively on marine phytoplankton, little is known about the molecular basis for this interaction on an evolutionary scale. Here we explored the adaptation to high CO2 in combination with warming in a model marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Whole-genome re-sequencing identifies, in comparison to populations grown under control conditions, a larger genetic diversity loss and a higher genetic differentiation in the populations adapted for 2 years to warming than in those adapted to high CO2. However, this diversity loss was less under high CO2 combined with warming, suggesting that the evolution driven by warming was constrained by high CO2. By integrating genomics, transcriptomics, and physiological data, we found that the underlying molecular basis for this constraint is associated with the expression of genes involved in some key metabolic pathways or biological processes, such as the glyoxylate pathway, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, and diel variability. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary responses of marine phytoplankton to multiple environmental changes in the context of global change and provide new insights into the molecular basis underpinning interactions among those multiple drivers.

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Fig. 1: Genome-wide screening of selective sweeps.
Fig. 2: Evolution of metabolic pathways.
Fig. 3: Evolution of metabolic traits.
Fig. 4: The alterations of diel variability in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

Data availability

All data used to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary information. Sequencing data are provided at the NCBI (SRA) database under the study accession code PRJNA824313.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos: 42076109, 41806141, and 41876124), Earth Critical Zone, and Eco-geochemistry (PT252022024), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No: LZ21C030001).

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PJ and JX conceived and designed the study. PJ, JL, JH, YL, and SL acquired the data. PJ, JW, YZ, KW, and ZM analyzed and interpreted the data. PJ drafted the manuscript. JB and KG commented on drafts and contributed to the editing of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Jianrong Xia.

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Jin, P., Wan, J., Zhou, Y. et al. Increased genetic diversity loss and genetic differentiation in a model marine diatom adapted to ocean warming compared to high CO2. ISME J (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-022-01302-y

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