Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Microbiomes of bloom-forming Phaeocystis algae are stable and consistently recruited, with both symbiotic and opportunistic modes

Abstract

Phaeocystis is a cosmopolitan, bloom-forming phytoplankton genus that contributes significantly to global carbon and sulfur cycles. During blooms, Phaeocystis species produce large carbon-rich colonies, creating a unique interface for bacterial interactions. While bacteria are known to interact with phytoplankton—e.g., they promote growth by producing phytohormones and vitamins—such interactions have not been shown for Phaeocystis. Therefore, we investigated the composition and function of P. globosa microbiomes. Specifically, we tested whether microbiome compositions are consistent across individual colonies from four P. globosa strains, whether similar microbiomes are re-recruited after antibiotic treatment, and how microbiomes affect P. globosa growth under limiting conditions. Results illuminated a core colonial P. globosa microbiome—including bacteria from the orders Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, and Rhizobiales—that was re-recruited after microbiome disruption. Consistent microbiome composition and recruitment is indicative that P. globosa microbiomes are stable-state systems undergoing deterministic community assembly and suggests there are specific, beneficial interactions between Phaeocystis and bacteria. Growth experiments with axenic and nonaxenic cultures demonstrated that microbiomes allowed continued growth when B-vitamins were withheld, but that microbiomes accelerated culture collapse when nitrogen was withheld. In sum, this study reveals symbiotic and opportunistic interactions between Phaeocystis colonies and microbiome bacteria that could influence large-scale phytoplankton bloom dynamics and biogeochemical cycles.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Geographic origins of the four strains of Phaeocystis globosa included in the study.
Fig. 2: Observed richness of OTUs in original and recruited bacterial communities associated with individual Phaeocystis colonies, Phaeocystis culture media, and inoculating seawater used in recruitment trials.
Fig. 3: Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) of Aitchison distances between bacterial communities associated with individual Phaeocystis colonies, Phaeocystis media, and inoculating seawater.
Fig. 4: Relative abundance of OTUs detected in association with Phaeocystis globosa colonies and in culture media.
Fig. 5: Growth curves for four strains of Phaeocystis globosa grown in L1–Si media with no nitrate added, L1–Si media with no B-vitamins added, and in replete L1–Si media.

Data availability

All sequencing data generated for this manuscript is available from the NCBI SRA under accession PRJN779092.

References

  1. Moran MA, Kujawinski EB, Stubbins A, Fatland R, Aluwihare LI, Buchan A, et al. Deciphering ocean carbon in a changing world. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016;113:3143–51.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Seymour JR, Amin SA, Raina J-B, Stocker R Zooming in on the phycosphere: the ecological interface for phytoplankton–bacteria relationships. Nat Microbiol. 2017;2:17065.

  3. Mendes R, Kruijt M, de Bruijn I, Dekkers E, van der Voort M, Schneider JHM, et al. Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science. 2011;332:1097–1100.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cirri E, Pohnert G. Algae-bacteria interactions that balance the planktonic microbiome. N. Phytol. 2019;223:100–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Amin SA, Hmelo LR, van Tol HM, Durham BP, Carlson LT, Heal KR, et al. Interaction and signalling between a cosmopolitan phytoplankton and associated bacteria. Nature. 2015;522:98–101.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Grant MAA, Kazamia E, Cicuta P, Smith AG. Direct exchange of vitamin B12 is demonstrated by modelling the growth dynamics of algal-bacterial cocultures. ISME J. 2014;8:1418–27.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bertrand EM, McCrow JP, Moustafa A, Zheng H, McQuaid JB, Delmont TO, et al. Phytoplankton-bacterial interactions mediate micronutrient colimitation at the coastal Antarctic sea ice edge. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015;112:9938–43.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Durham BP, Sharma S, Luo H, Smith CB, Amin SA, Bender SJ, et al. Cryptic carbon and sulfur cycling between surface ocean plankton. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015;112:453–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Suleiman M, Zecher K, Yücel O, Jagmann N, Philipp B. Interkingdom cross-feeding of ammonium from marine methylamine-degrading bacteria to the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:7113–22.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Seyedsayamdost MR, Case RJ, Kolter R, Clardy J. The Jekyll-and-Hyde chemistry of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis. Nat Chem. 2011;3:331–5.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ratnarajah L, Blain S, Boyd PW, Fourquez M, Obernosterer I, Tagliabue A. Resource colimitation drives competition between phytoplankton and bacteria in the Southern Ocean. Geophys Res Lett. 2021;48:e2020GL088369.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Løvdal T, Eichner C, Grossart H-P, Carbonnel V, Chou L, Martin-Jézéquel V, et al. Competition for inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorous between phytoplankton and bacteria during an Emiliania huxleyi spring bloom. Biogeosciences. 2008;5:371–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Arrigo KR, Robinson DH, Worthen DL, Dunbar RB, DiTullio GR, VanWoert M, et al. Phytoplankton community structure and the drawdown of nutrients and CO2 in the Southern Ocean. Science. 1999;283:365–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Geider R, La Roche J. Redfield revisited: variability of C:N:P in marine microalgae and its biochemical basis. Eur J Phycol. 2002;37:1–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Smayda TJ. Normal and accelerated sinking of phytoplankton in the sea. Mar Geol. 1971;11:105–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Amin SA, Parker MS, Armbrust EV. Interactions between diatoms and bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012;76:667–84.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Tréguer P, Bowler C, Moriceau B, Dutkiewicz S, Gehlen M, Aumont O, et al. Influence of diatom diversity on the ocean biological carbon pump. Nat Geosci. 2018;11:27–37.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Ferrer-González FX, Widner B, Holderman NR, Glushka J, Edison AS, Kujawinski EB, et al. Resource partitioning of phytoplankton metabolites that support bacterial heterotrophy. ISME J. 2021;15:762–73.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Mönnich J, Tebben J, Bergemann J, Case R, Wohlrab S, Harder T. Niche-based assembly of bacterial consortia on the diatom Thalassiosira rotula is stable and reproducible. ISME J. 2020;14:1614–25.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Shibl AA, Isaac A, Ochsenkühn MA, Cárdenas A, Fei C, Behringer G, et al. Diatom modulation of select bacteria through use of two unique secondary metabolites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020;117:27445–55.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Schoemann V, Becquevort S, Stefels J, Rousseau V, Lancelot C. Phaeocystis blooms in the global ocean and their controlling mechanisms: a review. J Sea Res. 2005;53:43–66.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Peperzak L, Colijn F, Gieskes WWC, Peeters JCH. Development of the diatom-Phaeocystis spring bloom in the Dutch coastal zone of the North Sea: the silicon depletion versus the daily irradiance threshold hypothesis. J Plankton Res. 1998;20:517–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hai D-N, Lam N-N, Dippner JW. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the south central coast of Viet Nam. J Mar Syst. 2010;83:253–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Wang X, Song H, Wang Y, Chen N. Research on the biology and ecology of the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa in China: Progresses in the last 20 years. Harmful Algae. 2021;107:102057.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Jiang M, Borkman DG, Scott Libby P, Townsend DW, Zhou M. Nutrient input and the competition between Phaeocystis pouchetii and diatoms in Massachusetts Bay spring bloom. J Mar Syst. 2014;134:29–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Nissen C, Vogt M. Factors controlling the competition between Phaeocystis and diatoms in the Southern Ocean and implications for carbon export fluxes. Biogeosciences. 2021;18:251–83.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mars Brisbin M, Mitarai S. Differential gene expression supports a resource-intensive, defensive role for colony production in the bloom-forming haptophyte, Phaeocystis globosa. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2019;66:788–801.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Zhu Z, Meng R, Smith WO Jr, Doan-Nhu H, Nguyen-Ngoc L, Jiang X. Bacterial composition associated with giant colonies of the harmful algal species Phaeocystis globosa. Front Microbiol. 2021;12:737484.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Delmont TO, Hammar KM, Ducklow HW, Yager PL, Post AF. Phaeocystis antarctica blooms strongly influence bacterial community structures in the Amundsen Sea polynya. Front Microbiol. 2014;5:646.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Verity PG, Whipple SJ, Nejstgaard JC, Alderkamp A-C. Colony size, cell number, carbon and nitrogen contents of Phaeocystis pouchetii from western Norway. J Plankton Res. 2007;29:359–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Alderkamp A-C, Buma AGJ, van Rijssel M. The carbohydrates of Phaeocystis and their degradation in the microbial food web. Biogeochemistry. 2007;83:99–118.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Smriga S, Fernandez VI, Mitchell JG, Stocker R. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016;113:1576–81.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Mühlenbruch M, Grossart H-P, Eigemann F, Voss M. Mini-review: Phytoplankton-derived polysaccharides in the marine environment and their interactions with heterotrophic bacteria. Environ Microbiol. 2018;20:2671–85.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Raina J-B, Fernandez V, Lambert B, Stocker R, Seymour JR. The role of microbial motility and chemotaxis in symbiosis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019;17:284–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Solomon CM, Lessard EJ, Keil RG, Foy MS. Characterization of extracellular polymers of Phaeocystis globosa and P. antarctica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2003;250:81–89.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Shen P, Qi Y, Wang Y, Huang L. Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, a harmful microalga, and its production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Chin J Oceano Limnol. 2011;29:869–73.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Louca S, Polz MF, Mazel F, Albright MBN, Huber JA, O’Connor MI, et al. Function and functional redundancy in microbial systems. Nat Ecol Evol. 2018;2:936–43.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Wang J, Bouwman AF, Liu X, Beusen AHW, Van Dingenen R, Dentener F, et al. Harmful algal blooms in chinese coastal waters will persist due to perturbed nutrient ratios. Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2021;8:276–84.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Foster RA, Kuypers MMM, Vagner T, Paerl RW, Musat N, Zehr JP. Nitrogen fixation and transfer in open ocean diatom-cyanobacterial symbioses. ISME J. 2011;5:1484–93.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Helliwell KE. The roles of B vitamins in phytoplankton nutrition: new perspectives and prospects. N. Phytol. 2017;216:62–68.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Bertrand EM, Saito MA, Rose JM, Riesselman CR, Lohan MC, Noble AE, et al. Vitamin B12 and iron colimitation of phytoplankton growth in the Ross Sea. Limnol Oceanogr. 2007;52:1079–93.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Tang YZ, Koch F, Gobler CJ. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010;107:20756–61.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Croft MT, Lawrence AD, Raux-Deery E, Warren MJ, Smith AG. Algae acquire vitamin B12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Nature. 2005;438:90–93.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Guillard RRL, Hargraves PE. Stichochrysis immobilis is a diatom, not a chrysophyte. Phycologia. 1993;32:234–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Hamilton PB, Lefebvre KE, Bull RD. Single cell PCR amplification of diatoms using fresh and preserved samples. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1084.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. dos Reis MC, Romac S, Le Gall F, Marie D, Frada MJ, Koplovitz G, et al. Exploring the phycosphere of Emiliania huxleyi: from bloom dynamics to microbiome assembly experiments. bioRxiv 2022;02;21:481256.

  47. Callahan BJ, McMurdie PJ, Rosen MJ, Han AW, Johnson AJA, Holmes SP. DADA2: High-resolution sample inference from Illumina amplicon data. Nat Methods. 2016;13:581–3.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Bolyen E, Rideout JR, Dillon MR, Bokulich NA, Abnet CC, Al-Ghalith GA, et al. Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2. Nat Biotechnol. 2019;37:852–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Quast C, Pruesse E, Yilmaz P, Gerken J, Schweer T, Glo FO, et al. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:590–6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Bokulich NA, Kaehler BD, Rideout JR, Dillon M, Bolyen E, Knight R, et al. Optimizing taxonomic classification of marker-gene amplicon sequences with QIIME 2’s q2-feature-classifier plugin. Microbiome. 2018;6:90.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. 2018. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.

  52. Mcmurdie PJ, Holmes S phyloseq: An R package for reproducible interactive analysis and graphics of microbiome census data. PLoS One 2013;8:e61217.

  53. Gloor GB, Macklaim JM, Pawlowsky-Glahn V, Egozcue JJ. Microbiome datasets are compositional: and this is not optional. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2224.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Oksanen J, Guillaume Blanchet F, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, et al. vegan: community ecology package. R package version. 2019;2:5–4.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Ares Á, Brisbin MM, Sato KN, Martín JP, Iinuma Y, Mitarai S. Extreme storms cause rapid but short-lived shifts in nearshore subtropical bacterial communities. Environ Microbiol. 2020;22:4571–88.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Radwan SSA, Al-Mailem DM, Kansour MK. Gelatinizing oil in water and its removal via bacteria inhabiting the gels. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13975.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Behringer G, Ochsenkühn MA, Fei C, Fanning J, Koester JA, Amin SA. Bacterial communities of diatoms display strong conservation across strains and time. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:659.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Glaeser SP, Imani J, Alabid I, Guo H, Kumar N, Kämpfer P, et al. Non-pathogenic Rhizobium radiobacter F4 deploys plant beneficial activity independent of its host Piriformospora indica. ISME J. 2016;10:871–84.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Chakraborty U, Chakraborty BN, Dey PL, Chakraborty AP, Sarkar J. Biochemical responses of wheat plants primed with Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense and subjected to salinity stress. Agric Res. 2019;8:427–40.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Johnson WM, Alexander H, Bier RL, Miller DR, Muscarella ME, Pitz KJ, et al. Auxotrophic interactions: a stabilizing attribute of aquatic microbial communities? FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2020;96;11:fiaa115.

  61. Ajani PA, Kahlke T, Siboni N, Carney R, Murray SA, Seymour JR. The Microbiome of the cosmopolitan diatom Leptocylindrus reveals significant spatial and temporal variability. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:2758.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Connor EF, McCoy ED. The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship. Am Nat. 1979;113:791–833.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Hamm CE, Simson DA, Merkel R, Smetacek V. Colonies of Phaeocystis globosa are protected by a thin but tough skin. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 1999;187:101–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Geddes BA, Paramasivan P, Joffrin A, Thompson AL, Christensen K, Jorrin B, et al. Engineering transkingdom signalling in plants to control gene expression in rhizosphere bacteria. Nat Commun. 2019;10:3430.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Sieburth JM. Acrylic acid, an‘ antibiotic’ principle in Phaeocystis blooms in Antarctic waters. Science. 1960;132:676–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Camacho C, Coulouris G, Avagyan V, Ma N, Papadopoulos J, Bealer K, et al. BLAST+: architecture and applications. BMC Bioinform. 2009;10:421.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Clark K, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Sayers EW. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:D67–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. López-Pérez M, Gonzaga A, Martin-Cuadrado A-B, Onyshchenko O, Ghavidel A, Ghai R, et al. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph. Sci Rep. 2012;2:696.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Diner RE, Schwenck SM, McCrow JP, Zheng H, Allen AE. Genetic manipulation of competition for nitrate between heterotrophic bacteria and diatoms. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:880.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Monteiro RA, Balsanelli E, Wassem R, Marin AM, Brusamarello-Santos LCC, Schmidt MA, et al. Herbaspirillum-plant interactions: microscopical, histological and molecular aspects. Plant Soil. 2012;356:175–96.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Bastián F, Cohen A, Piccoli P, Luna V, Baraldi R. Production of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins A1 and A3 by Acetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum seropedicae in chemically-defined culture media. Plant Growth Regul. 1998;24:7–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Gyaneshwar P, James EK, Reddy PM. Herbaspirillum colonization increases growth and nitrogen accumulation in aluminium‐tolerant rice varieties. N. Phytol. 2002;154:131–45.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Guo H, Yang Y, Liu K, Xu W, Gao J, Duan H, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3 and the identification of functional NRPS genes for siderophore production. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:3687619.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. Vásquez-Piñeros MA, Martínez-Lavanchy PM, Jehmlich N, Pieper DH, Rincón CA, Harms H, et al. Delftia sp. LCW, a strain isolated from a constructed wetland shows novel properties for dimethylphenol isomers degradation. BMC Microbiol. 2018;18:108.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Riegman R, Noordeloos AAM, Cadée GC. Phaeocystis blooms and eutrophication of the continental coastal zones of the North Sea. Mar Biol. 1992;112:479–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA, Cutter LS, Durazo R, Smail EA, Gómez-Consarnau L, Webb EA, et al. Multiple B-vitamin depletion in large areas of the coastal ocean. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012;109:14041–5.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Gobler CJ, Norman C, Panzeca C, Taylor GT, Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA. Effect of B-vitamins (B1, B12) and inorganic nutrients on algal bloom dynamics in a coastal ecosystem. Aquat Micro Ecol. 2007;49:181–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Gómez-Consarnau L, Sachdeva R, Gifford SM, Cutter LS, Fuhrman JA, Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA, et al. Mosaic patterns of B-vitamin synthesis and utilization in a natural marine microbial community. Environ Microbiol. 2018;20:2809–23.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Bertrand EM, Saito MA, Jeon YJ, Neilan BA. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis gene diversity in the Ross Sea: the identification of a new group of putative polar B12 biosynthesizers. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:1285–98.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Research was funded by the Marine Biophysics Unit of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University. MMB was supported by an OIST Junior Research Fellowship, a Postdoctoral Scholarship granted by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and a Simons Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship in Marine Microbiology (award # 874439). We thank the captain and crew of the Okinawa Prefectural Fisheries and Ocean Research Center ship Tonan Maru for collecting seawater from the East China Sea for the culture of the Kuroshio strain of Phaeocystis globosa. We further thank Kazumi Inoha for coordinating seawater sampling on the Tonan Maru. Dawn Moran provided valuable advice for treating phytoplankton cultures with antibiotics. The OIST DNA sequencing section (Onna, Okinawa, Japan) performed the sequencing for this project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MMB, SM, MAS, and HS conceived and planned the research; MMB performed experiments and analyzed data; All authors participated in discussions interpreting results; MMB wrote the original manuscript and all authors provided comments and approved the final version.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Margaret Mars Brisbin or Harriet Alexander.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mars Brisbin, M., Mitarai, S., Saito, M.A. et al. Microbiomes of bloom-forming Phaeocystis algae are stable and consistently recruited, with both symbiotic and opportunistic modes. ISME J 16, 2255–2264 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-022-01263-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-022-01263-2

Search

Quick links