Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Unexpected myriad of co-occurring viral strains and species in one of the most abundant and microdiverse viruses on Earth


Viral genetic microdiversity drives adaptation, pathogenicity, and speciation and has critical consequences for the viral-host arms race occurring at the strain and species levels, which ultimately impact microbial community structure and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the fact that most efforts have focused on viral macrodiversity, little is known about the microdiversity of ecologically important viruses on Earth. Recently, single-virus genomics discovered the putatively most abundant ocean virus in temperate and tropical waters: the uncultured dsDNA virus vSAG 37-F6 infecting Pelagibacter, the most abundant marine bacteria. In this study, we report the cooccurrence of up to ≈1,500 different viral strains (>95% nucleotide identity) and ≈30 related species (80-95% nucleotide identity) in a single oceanic sample. Viral microdiversity was maintained over space and time, and most alleles were the result of synonymous mutations without any apparent adaptive benefits to cope with host translation codon bias and efficiency. Gene flow analysis used to delimitate species according to the biological species concept (BSC) revealed the impact of recombination in shaping vSAG 37-F6 virus and Pelagibacter speciation. Data demonstrated that this large viral microdiversity somehow mirrors the host species diversity since ≈50% of the 926 analyzed Pelagibacter genomes were found to belong to independent BSC species that do not significantly engage in gene flow with one another. The host range of this evolutionarily successful virus revealed that a single viral species can infect multiple Pelagibacter BSC species, indicating that this virus crosses not only formal BSC barriers but also biomes since viral ancestors are found in freshwater.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Local micro- and macrodiversity of virus vSAG 37-F6 at the strain and species levels.
Fig. 2: Global microdiversity of pelagiphages.
Fig. 3: The biological species concept within vSAG 37-F6-like pelagiphages – Pelagibacter spp.
Fig. 4: Global phylogeography and evolution of vSAG 37-F6-like viruses.
Fig. 5: Microstructure of viral communities in marine ecosystems.

Data availability

vSAG 37-F6 Illumina amplicons sequenced in this study can be accessed at the SRA database in the BioSample accessions: SAMN18521786 – 18521791.


  1. 1.

    Roux S, Adriaenssens EM, Dutilh BE, Koonin EV, Kropinski AM, Krupovic M, et al. Minimum information about an uncultivated virus genome (MIUVIG). Nat Biotechnol 2019;37:29–37.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Paez-Espino D, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Pavlopoulos GA, Thomas AD, Huntemann M, Mikhailova N, et al. Uncovering Earth’s virome. Nature. 2016;536:425–30.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Gregory AC, Zayed AA, Conceição-Neto N, Temperton B, Bolduc B, Alberti A, et al. Marine DNA viral macro- and microdiversity from pole to pole. Cell. 2019;177:1109–23.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kavagutti VS, Andrei AŞ, Mehrshad M, Salcher MM, Ghai R. Phage-centric ecological interactions in aquatic ecosystems revealed through ultra-deep metagenomics. Microbiome. 2019;7:1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Schulz F, Alteio L, Goudeau D, Ryan EM, Yu FB, Malmstrom RR, et al. Hidden diversity of soil giant viruses. Nat Commun 2018;9:1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Trubl G, Jang H Bin, Roux S, Emerson JB, Solonenko N, Vik DR, et al. Soil viruses are underexplored players in ecosystem carbon processing. mSystems 2018;3:e00076–18.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Guerin E, Shkoporov A, Stockdale SR, Clooney AG, Ryan FJ, Sutton TDS, et al. Biology and taxonomy of crAss-like bacteriophages, the most abundant virus in the human gut. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;24:653–664.e6.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Martinez-Hernandez F, Fornas O, Lluesma Gomez M, Bolduc B, de la Cruz Peña MJ, Martínez JM, et al. Single-virus genomics reveals hidden cosmopolitan and abundant viruses. Nat Commun 2017;8:1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Aguirre de Cárcer D, Angly FE, Alcamí A. Evaluation of viral genome assembly and diversity estimation in deep metagenomes. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Roux S, Emerson JB, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Sullivan MB. Benchmarking viromics: an in silico evaluation of metagenome-enabled estimates of viral community composition and diversity. PeerJ. 2017;5:e3817.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Avrani S, Wurtzel O, Sharon I, Sorek R, Lindell D. Genomic island variability facilitates Prochlorococcus-virus coexistence. Nature. 2011;474:604–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Rodriguez-Valera F, Martin-Cuadrado A-B, Rodriguez-Brito B, Pasic L, Thingstad TF, Rohwer F, et al. Explaining microbial population genomics through phage predation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009;7:828–36.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Marston MF, Pierciey FJ, Shepard A, Gearin G, Qi J, Yandava C, et al. Rapid diversification of coevolving marine Synechococcus and a virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012;109:4544–9.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Enav H, Kirzner S, Lindell D, Mandel-Gutfreund Y, Béjà O. Adapt sub-Optim hosts is a Driv viral Diversif ocean Nat Comm 2018;9:1–11.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Boon M, Holtappels D, Lood C, van Noort V, Lavigne R. Host range expansion of pseudomonas virus LUZ7 is driven by a conserved tail fiber mutation. PHAGE. 2020;1:87–90.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Bernheim A, Sorek R. The pan-immune system of bacteria: antiviral defence as a community resource. Nat Rev Microbiol 2020;18:113–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Sørensen MA, Kurland CG, Pedersen S. Codon usage determines translation rate in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 1989;207:365–77.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Varenne S, Buc J, Lloubes R, Lazdunski C. Translation is a non-uniform process. Effect of tRNA availability on the rate of elongation of nascent polypeptide chains. J Mol Biol 1984;180:549–76.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Yu CH, Dang Y, Zhou Z, Wu C, Zhao F, Sachs MS, et al. Codon Usage Influences the Local Rate of Translation Elongation to Regulate Co-translational Protein Folding. Mol Cell. 2015;59:744–54.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Plotkin JB, Kudla G. Synonymous but not the same: The causes and consequences of codon bias. Nat Rev Genet 2011;12:32–42.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Chu D, Wei L. Nonsynonymous, synonymous and nonsense mutations in human cancer-related genes undergo stronger purifying selections than expectation. BMC Cancer. 2019;19:359.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Deng L, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Gregory AC, Poulos BT, Weitz JS, Hugenholtz P, et al. Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space. Nature. 2014;513:242–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Edwards RA, Vega AA, Norman HM, Ohaeri M, Levi K, Dinsdale EA, et al. Global phylogeography and ancient evolution of the widespread human gut virus crAssphage. Nat Microbiol 2019;4:1727–36.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Ahlgren NA, Fuhrman JA. Long-term stability and Red Queen-like strain dynamics in marine viruses. Nat. Microbiol. 2019;5:1–7.

  25. 25.

    Coutinho FH, Rosselli R, Rodríguez-Valera F. Trends of microdiversity reveal depth-dependent evolutionary strategies of viruses in the Mediterranean. mSystems. 2019;4:1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Needham DM, Sachdeva R, Fuhrman JA. Ecological dynamics and co-occurrence among marine phytoplankton, bacteria and myoviruses shows microdiversity matters. ISME J. 2017;11:1614–29.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Martinez-Hernandez F, Fornas Ò, Lluesma Gomez M, Garcia-Heredia I, Maestre-Carballa L, López-Pérez M, et al. Single-cell genomics uncover Pelagibacter as the putative host of the extremely abundant uncultured 37-F6 viral population in the ocean. ISME J. 2019;13:232–6.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    McMullen A, Martinez‐Hernandez F, Martinez‐Garcia M. Absolute quantification of infecting viral particles by chip‐based digital polymerase chain reaction. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2019;11:855–60.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Marston MF, Amrich CG. Recombination and microdiversity in coastal marine cyanophages. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:2893–903.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Marston MF, Martiny JBH. Genomic diversification of marine cyanophages into stable ecotypes. Environ Microbiol 2016;18:4240–53.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Cordero OX. Endemic cyanophages and the puzzle of phage-bacteria coevolution. Environ Microbiol 2017;19:420–2.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Shannon CE. The mathematical theory of communication. 1963. MD Comput. 1997;14:306–17.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Roux S, Brum JR, Dutilh BE, Sunagawa S, Duhaime MB, Loy A, et al. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses. Nature. 2016;537:689–93.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Bobay L-M, Ochman H. Biological species in the viral world. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2018;115:6040–5.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Henson MW, Lanclos VC, Faircloth BC, Thrash JC. Cultivation and genomics of the first freshwater SAR11 (LD12) isolate. ISME J. 2018;12:1846–60.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Paez-Espino D, Roux S, Chen I-MA, Palaniappan K, Ratner A, Chu K, et al. IMG/VR v.2.0: an integrated data management and analysis system for cultivated and environmental viral genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019;47:D678–D686.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Brum JR, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Kim E-H, Trubl G, Jones RM, Roux S, et al. Illuminating structural proteins in viral ‘dark matter’ with metaproteomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016;113:2436–41.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Sakowski EG, Arora-Williams K, Tian F, Zayed AA, Zablocki O, Sullivan MB, et al. Interaction dynamics and virus–host range for estuarine actinophages captured by epicPCR. Nat. Microbiol. 2021;6:1–13.

  39. 39.

    Alonso-Sáez L, Morán XAG, Clokie MR. Low activity of lytic pelagiphages in coastal marine waters. ISME J. 2018;12:2100–2.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Martinez‐Hernandez F, Luo E, Tominaga K, Ogata H, Yoshida T, DeLong EF, et al. Diel cycling of the cosmopolitan abundant Pelagibacter virus 37‐F6: one of the most abundant viruses in Earth. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2020;12:214–219

  41. 41.

    Mruwat N, Carlson MCG, Goldin S, Ribalet F, Kirzner S, Hulata Y, et al. A single-cell polony method reveals low levels of infected Prochlorococcus in oligotrophic waters despite high cyanophage abundances. ISME J. 2021;15:41–54.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    de Avila e Silva S, Echeverrigaray S, Gerhardt GJL. BacPP: bacterial promoter prediction-A tool for accurate sigma-factor specific assignment in enterobacteria. J Theor Biol 2011;287:92–99.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Sampaio M, Rocha M, Oliveira H, Dias O. Predicting promoters in phage genomes using PhagePromoter. Bioinformatics. 2019;35:5301–2.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Allert M, Cox JC, Hellinga HW. Multifactorial determinants of protein expression in prokaryotic open reading frames. J Mol Biol. 2010;402:905–18.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Dressaire C, Picard F, Redon E, Loubière P, Queinnec I, Girbal L, et al. Role of mRNA stability during bacterial adaptation. PLoS ONE 2013;8:e59059.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Deana A, Belasco JG. Lost in translation: The influence of ribosomes on bacterial mRNA decay. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2526–33.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Zhao Y, Temperton B, Thrash JC, Schwalbach MS, Vergin KL, Landry ZC, et al. Abundant SAR11 viruses in the ocean. Nature. 2013;494:357–60.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Zhang Z, Qin F, Chen F, Chu X, Luo H, Zhang R, et al. Culturing novel and abundant pelagiphages in the ocean. Environ Microbiol 2020;1462-2920:15272.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Zhao Y, Qin F, Zhang R, Giovannoni SJ, Zhang Z, Sun J, et al. Pelagiphages in the Podoviridae family integrate into host genomes. Environ Microbiol. 2018;21:1989–2001.

  50. 50.

    Morris RM, Cain KR, Hvorecny KL, Kollman JM. Lysogenic host–virus interactions in SAR11 marine bacteria. Nat Microbiol 2020;5:1011–5.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Konstantinidis KT, Ramette A, Tiedje JM. The bacterial species definition in the genomic era. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci 2006;361:1929–40.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Rosselló-Mora R. Updating prokaryotic taxonomy. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6255–7.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Parks DH, Rinke C, Chuvochina M, Chaumeil P-A, Woodcroft BJ, Evans PN, et al. Recovery of nearly 8,000 metagenome-assembled genomes substantially expands the tree of life. Nat Microbiol 2017;2:1533–42.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Richter M, Rossello-Mora R. Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009;106:19126–31.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Pope WH, Bowman CA, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Asai DJ, Cresawn SG, et al. Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity. eLife 2015;4:e06416.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Gregory AC, Solonenko SA, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, LaButti K, Copeland A, Sudek S, et al. Genomic differentiation among wild cyanophages despite widespread horizontal gene transfer. BMC genomics. 2016;17:930.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Martinez-Hernandez F, Garcia-Heredia I, Lluesma Gomez M, Maestre-Carballa L, Martínez Martínez J, Martinez-Garcia M. Droplet digital PCR for estimating absolute abundances of widespread Pelagibacter viruses. Front Microbiol 2019;10:1226.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Warwick-Dugdale J, Solonenko N, Moore K, Chittick L, Gregory AC, Allen MJ, et al. Long-read viral metagenomics captures abundant and microdiverse viral populations and their niche-defining genomic islands. PeerJ. 2019;7:e6800.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Beaulaurier J, Luo E, Eppley JM, Uyl P Den, Dai X, Burger A, et al. Assembly-free single-molecule sequencing recovers complete virus genomes from natural microbial communities. Genome Res. 2020;30:437–46.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Murigneux V, Rai SK, Furtado A, Bruxner TJC, Tian W, Harliwong I, et al. Comparison of long-read methods for sequencing and assembly of a plant genome. GigaScience 2020;9:giaa146.

  61. 61.

    Wenger AM, Peluso P, Rowell WJ, Chang PC, Hall RJ, Concepcion GT, et al. Accurate circular consensus long-read sequencing improves variant detection and assembly of a human genome. Nat Biotechnol 2019;37:1155–62.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Martínez Martínez J, Martinez-Hernandez F, Martinez-Garcia M. Single-virus genomics and beyond. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020;18:705–16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Labonté JM, Swan BK, Poulos B, Luo H, Koren S, Hallam SJ, et al. Single-cell genomics-based analysis of virus-host interactions in marine surface bacterioplankton. ISME J. 2015;9:2386–99.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Mizuno CM, Rodriguez-Valera F, Kimes NE, Ghai R. Expanding the marine virosphere using metagenomics. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003987.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Mizuno CM, Ghai R, Saghaï A, López-García P, Rodriguez-Valera F. Genomes of abundant and widespread viruses from the deep ocean. mBio. 2016;7:e00805–16.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Ye J, Coulouris G, Zaretskaya I, Cutcutache I, Rozen S, Madden TL. Primer-BLAST: a tool to design target-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction. BMC Bioinforma. 2012;13:134.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Bolger AM, Lohse M, Usadel B. Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data. Bioinformatics. 2014;30:2114–20.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Li W, Godzik A. Cd-hit: a fast program for clustering and comparing large sets of protein or nucleotide sequences. Bioinformatics. 2006;22:1658–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Philosof A, Yutin N, Flores-Uribe J, Sharon I, Koonin EV, Béjà O. Novel abundant oceanic viruses of uncultured marine group II Euryarchaeota. Curr Biol. 2017;27:1362–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Vik DR, Roux S, Brum JR, Bolduc B, Emerson JB, Padilla CC, et al. Putative archaeal viruses from the mesopelagic ocean. PeerJ. 2017;5:e3428.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Bin Jang H, Bolduc B, Zablocki O, Kuhn JH, Roux S, Adriaenssens EM, et al. Taxonomic assignment of uncultivated prokaryotic virus genomes is enabled by gene-sharing networks. Nat Biotechnol 2019;37:632–9.

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Bobay L-M, Ellis BS-H, Ochman H. ConSpeciFix: classifying prokaryotic species based on gene flow. Bioinformatics. 2018;34:3738–40.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Bobay L-M, Ochman H. Biological species are universal across life’s domains. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:491–501.

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Hyatt D, Chen G-L, Locascio PF, Land ML, Larimer FW, Hauser LJ. Prodigal: prokaryotic gene recognition and translation initiation site identification. BMC Bioinforma. 2010;11:119.

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Edgar RC. Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:2460–1.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Harris CD, Torrance EL, Raymann K, Bobay L-M. CoreCruncher: Fast and robust construction of core genomes in large prokaryotic data sets. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2020;38:727–734.

  77. 77.

    Edgar RC. MUSCLE: Multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1792–7.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Rice P, Longden L, Bleasby A EMBOSS: The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. Trends Genet. 2000. Elsevier Ltd., 16: 276–7

  79. 79.

    Džunková M, Low SJ, Daly JN, Deng L, Rinke C, Hugenholtz P. Defining the human gut host–phage network through single-cell viral tagging. Nat Microbiol 2019;4:2192–203.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Price MN, Dehal PS, Arkin AP. FastTree 2 – approximately maximum-likelihood trees for large alignments. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9490.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Stamatakis A. RAxML version 8: A tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics. 2014;30:1312–3.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Swan BK, Ehrhardt CJ, Reifel KM, Moreno LI, Valentine DL. Archaeal and bacterial communities respond differently to environmental gradients in anoxic sediments of a california hypersaline lake, the Salton Sea. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010;76:757–68.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Baran N, Goldin S, Maidanik I, Lindell D. Quantification of diverse virus populations in the environment using the polony method. Nat Microbiol 2018;3:62–72.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (RTI2018-094248-B-I00), Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant 5334) and Generalitat Valenciana (ACIF/2015/332 and APOSTD/2020/237). We thank Dr. Josep Gasol for giving us access to collecting samples from REMEI Expedition and Dr. Mario Martinez-Lopez for sharing a collection of Pelagibacter genomes.

Author information




MM-G conceived and led the study. FM-H led the analyses and interpretation of data. AD and L-MB led the biological specie analysis and interpretation of data. MM-G and FM-H wrote the paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manuel Martinez-Garcia.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Martinez-Hernandez, F., Diop, A., Garcia-Heredia, I. et al. Unexpected myriad of co-occurring viral strains and species in one of the most abundant and microdiverse viruses on Earth. ISME J (2021).

Download citation


Quick links